Linh Thao Inha vi Phat Giao

Aloysius Pieris, S.J.

Aloysius Pieris la mot linh muc Dong Ten ngi Sri Lanka, hien lam giam oc trung tam Tulana, ni oi thoai kito-phat; bai viet nay ang trong tap ch The Way, 1989, trang 98-111: chung toi xin gi en quy oc gia e goi la co mot chut g mng 500 nam thanh Inha Loyola sinh ra: 1491-1991.

Nhan nh M ng

Ngoai bien rong, lay g so cung bien rong; ngoai tri cao, lay g sanh vi tri cao: tuc ng tieng Phan thu xa noi nh the . Phat giao vi Kyto giao la nhng thc the het sc oc ao: moi ben eu bieu th ro ban sac oc nhat vo nh cua mnh en o muon so sanh chung co nghia la chu ng au vi mot thach o ln. Tuy nhien, giong nh tri vi bien, Phat giao va Kyto giao khong nhng tng hp vi nhau trong ban tnh d biet khon ta cua chung, ma con co the bo tuc cho nhau na. Hai ton giao bo tuc cho nhau nh the nao, th a c e cap ti mot cach khuc chiet cho khac roi [1] , con ay, toi khong the lam them c g hn la ghi lai mot t iem noi bat rut ra t bai khao luan ay, xet v chung can e lam hau canh cho bai viet nay.

Hai ton giao bo tuc cho nhau trong nhng g chung ap ng cho hai ban nang d biet nhng lai tuy thuoc va bo tuc cho lan nhau cua tam than con ngi. Phat giao thoa man khat vong tham sau cua chung ta: khat vong tm biet chan ly giai thoat cho en tot mc sieu ban v cua no. Kyto giao th ap ng sung man nhu cau yeu thng nguon mach cu o cua moi sinh linh cho en tot mc tng giao mat thiet lien ban v. iem nong cot cua Phat giao la trc quang (gnostic/giac ngo/duy tri/hieu biet e c cu o), tuy nhien t ban chat, khong phai ch mot chieu co the. Bi v ngay t buoi s khai, Phat giao cung a co mot loi tu c ay sac thai "cam tnh" (affective) ng oi nhp nhang vi giao thuyet cu o "minh triet" (sapiential). Va ngc lai, Kyto giao khong phai thuan tuy mot mc la sung ai (love): trong lch s, a tng thay co mot trao lu tu c than b (mysticism) theo khuynh hng duy tri chu anh hng sau am cua van minh van hoa Hy lap va phu hp vi le loi chnh thong Kyto; con hn na, neu khong co trao lu ay, th Kyto giao han a thieu mat i mot phan ong gop khong phai la nho.

Nhan nh tong quat tren ay tiem ngu hai s that hien nhien. S that au tien la gnosis (trc tri) va agape (c ai) eu la hai loai ngon ng dung e dien ta viec giai thoat ma than tr noi len trong moi mot ngi chung ta va v the khong mot ton giao nao co the khch le chung ta no lc tien ti mc sung man cua con ngi c neu khong chu day cho chung ta biet noi thong thao ca hai th tieng o. ieu can noi cho ro la nhng g ngi Phat giao noi trong moi mot ngi chung ta bang ngon ng "minh triet", th ngi Kyto trong chung ta can phai hieu va ap lai bang ngon ng cua tnh yeu; va ngc lai. S that th hai la: ch nhng ngi quen em thai o hng noi ma thu nhan loi oi thoai ben trong nh the th mi co u ieu kien e tham d thc s vao cuoc gap g hu ch gia hai hnh thai van hoa hoan toan d biet do Phat giao va Kyto giao gay dng nen trong nhng xa hoi rut sinh kh t hai chnh ton giao ay.

Nguyen tac song ng ay cung to ra rat cong hieu ngay ca trong trng hp mot lanh vc rieng biet cua Kyto giao - va ay la trng hp cua ng hng tu c (Linh ao) Inha, muon tm cach e song thoai mai nh la nha mnh, trong mot moi trng van hoa rieng biet c nhoi nan len bi mot nhanh Phat giao, tc la truyen thong Theravada (Tieu Tha) ma chung toi gap thay tai Tch Lan ay. Ngi Kyto muon lam viec tai mot boi canh van hoa nh the th phai la "ngi a hoi nhap" vao trong van hoa o, thanh thao trong ca hai ng hng tu c, giong nh la a am re sau vao trong ca hai th at. D nhien, ieu nay chac chan khong phai la chuyen de. Hang say khong c hng dan trong no lc hoi nhap co the a ti hai cam do sau ay: co tron lan hai th ngon ng noi tren e lam ra mot loai tu c lai cang, mot th "ta-pn-lu" chang co mui v g ac sac ca; chung ta thng goi kieu bien che nay la thuyet ho lon (syncretism); o la cam do th nhat; cam do th hai co ve tinh vi hn, tc la co tao nen mot th tertium quid (e tam vat/cai th ba), trong o khong ben nao trong hai ben con gi c ban sac rieng cua mnh, cho du la trong mot cach thc tron lan; ngi ta goi tac pham cua loai sang tao nay la hnh thc "tong hp". Khong mot phng thc nao trong hai ng loi tren ay co the mang lai c mot chut li ch g cho nhng no lc ai ket hay la cho i song thieng lieng.

ng hng chung toi chon: chung toi goi la "symbiosis", tc la "ong sinh", cung song vi nhau; o la mot hnh thc song tng tr lan nhau, qua o ngon ng cua moi ben cang ngay cang co kha nang lam cho ban sac cua mnh tr thanh ben nhay hn oi vi ben kia. Bi v, qua s kien hai ben bieu hien chnh mnh cho nhau, ban chat ch thc cua moi ben se to ro en o co the nhan ra c nhng g khong phai la chan chnh trong bat c ben nao. Va ket qua co y nghia nhat cua cach thc ong sinh nay la at en cho phat hien va loai bo c nhng g la gia tao trong truyen thong cua moi ben.

Trong cac lan cam phong hoac tnh tam to chc chung cho nhng nhom gom ca tn o Phat giao lan tn hu Kyto, toi a co dp phat hien ra t trong ca hai truyen thong, nhieu ieu khong chan chnh noi tren. Con oi vi linh ao Inha la tieu iem cua bai viet nay th toi co the dan ra mot danh sach dai ke lai cac ieu gia tao noi tren; nhng ay, toi ch xin neu len nhng iem lien quan ti cac van e nh sau thoi:

-Khuon mau than hoc cua Linh Thao Inha,

-Y niem ve "chiem niem",

-Quan niem ve "cai toi" trong nhan sinh quan Inha.

Than Hoc Linh Thao Inha

Le loi hanh ong la bc au tien trong tien trnh hnh thanh ly thuyet cua chnh le loi ay. Tiec thay la ly thuyet ngam an trong ng loi than hoc Inha a khong tien hanh theo mot cach thc can xng vi sc cai hoa cua Linh Thao. Toi nghi rang nh the la v chnh Inha cung a la nan nhan chu anh hng cua giao thuyet kinh vien vao hoi suy tan con c day tai Paris trong thi thanh nhan theo hoc o. Theo hoc trng phai than hoc ng hng ay a gay suy nhc cho tnh trang i song thieng lieng cua Inha en o thanh nhan a cam thay can phai danh nhieu th gi hn e tnh dng va cau nguyen hau lay lai sc noi tam. Kinh nghiem nay ve sau a giup Inha ngh ra viec quy nh cho Dong Ten mot thi gian huan luyen ma ngai goi la "nam th ba" (nha tap nam ba), hay la schola affectus (trng cam thc). o la thi gian hoc vien Dong Ten dung e phuc hoi lai nhng g phng phap kinh vien a lam cho mat i.

Chnh Linh Thao cung tch cha nhieu yeu to ngot ngat, hau qua cua ng hng than hoc kinh vien noi tren. Ngay ca phan Nguyen ly va Nen tang (Linh Thao: LT so 23) la iem tinh tuy cua loi tu c cam thc (affective) c co xuy trong tat ca bon Tuan (giai oan, bc) cua Linh Thao, cung b bop meo bi cach trnh bay kem kep theo cong thc kinh vien. Hoc thuyet oc hai ve viec x dung tao vat ma i en vi Thien Chua (ly thuyet coi cong trnh tao dng la dung cu), c Nguyen ly va nen tang chong ly thuyet oi nghch han vi nhan gii sinh thai hoc (ecological) trong Phat giao cung xuat phat t nen than hoc kinh vien thi suy tan, va trai ngc han vi giao thuyet coi cong trnh tao dng qua nhan gii b tch-dau ch, la giao thuyet hien ro trong cuoc linh thao tuyet nh mang ten: Cuoc chiem niem e c tnh yeu (LT 230-237), cho du van ban viet ve cuoc linh thao nay co x dung mot vai t ng kinh vien. Ngay ca trong cac cuoc linh thao chu chot cua Tuan th nhat, ngi lam Linh Thao (ngi cam phong) quen song vi ne nep cam thc Phat giao, cung se cam thay ban khoan boi roi v cach thc dien ta sac mui toa an cua nen than hoc Latinh ch biet nhan manh en toi loi vi lai cong chnh hoa.

Cac tu s Dong Ten thi au a cho Linh Thao dam chan tai cho, coi o nh la mot thu ban tu c khong hn khong kem, e lo em het sc lc khai thac than hoc kinh vien en tot mc o tru tng cua no. Ngay ca nhng v loi lac nh Bellarmino cung a nhung tay vao cach hanh ong phan tan lam oi ang tiec o. V vay, nhng bat ong tng t nh noi tren oi vi tu c Phat giao thng la do bau kh than hoc khong may thch ang bao quanh Linh Thao ma ra hn la do chnh ban chat cua le loi hanh ong theo phng thc Inha. Ngon ng than hoc dung trong Linh Thao co nhieu luc khong noi len c nhng g la cam thc trong phng phap tu c Inha.

Trong the anh hng ho tng vi tu c Phat giao, Linh Thao co the gi len mot phng hng e theo o ma i tm mot ng loi than hoc Inha thch ang. Du khong hoan toan thoat khoi anh hng cua giao thuyet kinh vien, loi tu c Tieu tha (Theravada) cung a gi lai c khuon mau lieu phap (therapeutic) nguyen thuy cua mnh. c Phat la mot y s chan oan tnh canh nguy khon (ieu ma ngi kyto goi la "tnh trang sa oa": fallenness) nh la mot chng "kho " (disease) tram trong kinh nien: dukkha (pain/kho au); va nguyen nhan cua no la taneha (greed/long tham). o la hai chan ly cao quy au tien. Chan ly th ba xac quyet rang chng kho khong the cha lanh c neu khong diet tr nguyen nhan sinh ra no; bi v ch co the tm ra c lanh manh va hoan hao trong trang thai khong co long tham ma thoi! Chan ly th t la lieu thuoc; phai thuoc th ai cung ro la con ng trung dung giai phong khoi kho au, goi la "con ng tam loi cao quy" (the eightfold noble path); o la tom lc noi dung cua tu c nha Phat; tc la cach thc e nho tan goc long tham hay la tnh quy nga (self-centredness).

Coi khuon mau lieu phap kia nh la cach thc co xuy cho mot loi tu c theo ca nhan chu ngha, la khong ung. Ngay nay, gii tn o Phat giao cung nh gii tang ni dan than trong cac no lc au tranh giai phong, eu co triet e tan dung giao thuyet xa hoi de no con tiem an trong huan gii cua c Phat. Ho a chan oan ra rang long tham ung la nguyen nhan cua tnh trang benh hoan trong xa hoi hien nay, nghia la khuynh hng tam ly h hong nay a c c cau hoa thanh y thc he long vao gia mot he thong xa hoi kinh te bat nhan en o co gang cua nhng ca nhan rieng re khong con u sc e kh tr khuynh hng oc hai o mot mnh c na. Mot "cuoc phan tach va thau hieu cac s viec ung vi thc chat cua chung" (yathabhutane neana: e dung cau ma c Phat thng noi), cho thay la can phai a ra mot no lc chung va co to chc th mi tay tr c long tham c cau hoa nh the .

He thong t tng lam hau canh cho cach giai thch tren ay co the tom gon lai nh the nay: c tnh khong tham lam (alpecchata, theo nghia tng ch muon noi la: ch tm va u cho nhu cau cuoc song, khong chut d tha) phai lam nguyen tac ao c dan ng cho moi hnh thc to chc xa hoi neu thc s chung ta muon nho bo tan goc canh cung cc cua hang "am quan chung ang b ap bc", tc la dalidda (t ng va y niem nay a c kinh th Phat giao a vao trong cac ngon ng cua An o, co le la v cac ao hu Phat giao a la nhng ngi trc tien thay rang tnh trang ngheo kho cua dan chung la mot te trang xa hoi. [2] )

Nguyen tac nay cung la nen tang cua cac khuynh hng than hoc giai phong ang moc len tai A ong: viec thc thi kho ngheo Phuc am (alpecchata) va no lc e loai bo ngheo kho buoc long phai chu (daridrata) co tng quan mat thiet vi nhau [3] , bi v viec nho tan goc nguyen nhan gay ra benh hoan co nghia la phai cha cho lanh benh hoan o i. Xet cho cung, Nc Chua a chang c cac ngi rao giang Phuc am au tien gii thieu nh la s mang cha lanh do quyen nang cua Thien Chua trong c Giesu o sao? Chang phai toan bo Phuc am hang khong ngng giong len s iep noi ti tnh trang sung man cua con ngi c am bao mot khi song lai, va c nem hng trc ay va trong giay phut nay, qua via crucis (con ng Thanh gia) cua tnh yeu vo v ky va cua tinh than chia xe khong chut tham lam o sao?

ung the , Inha lay lai ngon ng ay vi y nghia cua chnh t ng "Linh Thao", c hieu nh la mot phng thc e gi cho "cac bap tht thieng lieng" cua chung ta co u sc ma hanh ong (LT 1). Cha Iparraguirre nhan nh rang gia cac nh thc (cong thc oi) Inha thng dung ti khi muon dien ta cac y tng nong cot cua Linh Thao, t "cu o" (salvation: LT 1) c ghep lien vi t salud: "sc khoe" [4] .

V the , co ngi se toc mach muon tm xem co bao gi mot loai than hoc khong kinh vien nhng lai dung th ngon ng lieu phap, a i vao trong tam tay Inha cha. Xem ra lch s co the giai ap thac mac kia.

Cho du khong phai la mot than hoc gia chuyen mon, Inha cung a co oc thc tien u e nhan ra rang ca trong Linh Thao (LT 363) lan trong Hien Phap Dong Ten [5] , can phai co mot loai "than hoc thc chng" (positive theology) hau bo tuc cho "than hoc kinh vien". Inha se giai thch noi rang loai than hoc au co khuynh hng khch le "cam tnh", con loai sau th e minh nh, dan giai va bao ve cac chan ly chong lai nhng g khong chnh thong (LT 363). Tuy nhien, cac mon o cua thanh nhan a to ra hang say qua o oi vi loai than hoc co tnh cach thuan ly va bien giao ma bo quen loai than hoc thc chng.

Thc ra, giong nh Petau, "ong to cua than hoc thc chng", va hn nh Montoya ay oc sang tao, cac tu s Dong Ten a co khoi phuc phng phap thc chng, nhng lai nham vao luc "than hoc thc chng" ang thi thoai hoa e ch n thuan gi vai phuc vu cho phng phap kinh vien. Cha Congar noi rang Inha (cung vi Juan Mair c coi nh la ngi au tien e cap ti phng phap song oi nh the trong tap ong ta bnh luan ve cuon Liber Sententiarum [Paris 1509]) a e ra cho chung ta y niem s khi ve "than hoc thc chng" [6] .

o la loai than hoc hay la mot phng phap nghien cu than hoc co phan anh nep song tu c thc te na ch khong phai ch danh het u t cho viec bien giai cac tn ieu mot cach thuan ly. Nh vay, co the goi than hoc thc chng la mot loai than hoc nham ti cong tac thc thi viec giai phong con ngi hay khong? Ma than hoc co bao gi la g khac hn au?

Trong cong ong chung Trento a co hai tieng keu trong sa mac bien ho cho viec phuc hoi loai than hoc ma cung vi Inha, chung ta nhan la "thc chng" va khong-kinh vien. Tiec thay la hai tieng keu ay a khong phai la tieng cua hai tu s Dong Ten luc o ang phuc vu cong ong trong t cach la than hoc gia giao hoang, va a c hoan ho nh la nhng quan quan cua khuynh hng chu trng status quo (nguyen trang). Hai tieng keu kia chnh la cua hai tu s Dong Bien c ngi Y: Chiari va Ottoni, noi len c mong c thay giao hoi cong giao Roma co tranh ng e cuoc ly khai luc o ang am y tai tay phng xay ra, bang cach loai bo i loi dien ta toa an theo dang thc: toi loi, hnh phat, cong chnh hoa, va bang cach thu dung phng thc Kinh Thanh va cac giao phu dung ma at cac van e can nghien cu; chang han lay lai mau thc cua trng phai antiokia a c thanh Chrysostomo cung dung chnh loai ngon ng lieu phap ma khai trien rong ra. Hai tu s Dong Bien c [7] khuyen cao rang chnh loai than hoc dung loi dien at cua ngon ng toa an Lama a e ra toan bo cuoc cai va ang tiec ve van e c tin va cong c; va khong nhng cac nha than hoc cong giao Roma ma thoi nhng ca cac nha Cai cach na cung eu b giam ham trong loai than hoc o.

Hai v tu s nay a b cac ngi kinh vien ngam ngam a ao! Khong biet hai tu s Dong Ten co trong so nhng ngi a ket an ho la theo "The phan" hay khong? Cac mon o cua Inha cung nen ngam ngh ma can nhac lai nhng g Barry Collett thuat lai tren ay. Than hoc Antiokia c cac tu s Bien c tnh Casino, song trong vung t Messina cho en Provence duy tr lai, day rang ieu chung ta tha ke t Adong th khong phai la loi pham, nhng la than phan phai chet, va v the , e cho khoi phai chet i i, th an sung cua c Kyto a giai thoat chung ta. Tuy nhien, cach thc tien hanh trong viec cha tr qua o ban tnh con ngi chung ta a b trong thng c phuc hoi nguyen ven, se tuy thuoc vao c tin va cong c cua chung ta.

Neu Inha a co mat trong ai hoi cong ong luc o va co u von lieng ma hieu tieng Latinh cho kham kha, th chac chan thanh nhan a co the nhan ra c ngay mot loai than hoc thc chng ma phng phap Linh Thao cua ngai ang can en. Neu loai than hoc nay a bien mat i trong thi hau cong ong bay gi [8] , th co phai la bi v Inha a khong co mat o e nhan no lam cua mnh? Du sao i na th ca devotio moderna (loi sung mo tan thi: ma thanh nhan hap thu t sach Gng Chua Giesu) lan loi cau truc trong Ejercitatorio cua Cisneros (ma xem ra Inha lay c t tren Montserrat) eu a c nhoi nan trong lo kinh nghiem cua ban than Inha e bien thai tan goc re, tr thanh mot phng tien mi cho cong trnh canh tan thieng lieng trong giao hoi. Co the v ch lien lac vi Dong Bien c von ven co may ngay ngan ngui tren Montserrat thoi, nen Inha a kkhong co dp tiep xuc vi "than hoc thc chng" cua Tnh Casino ma anh hng chac chan a lan en tan an vien nho be nam tren chop Montserrat. Neu tnh c thanh nhan a gap c loai than hoc nh the, th chac han ngai a tr thanh ngi khai sang mot trao lu canh tan than hoc het nh ngai a tng ong vai tro khai sang khong ai choi cai c trong phong trao canh tan thieng lieng.

Cho du la ch c rut ra t kinh nghiem Phat giao cua rieng toi, th nhan xet kia cung ang c coi nh la li phe bnh theo tinh than Inha oi vi truyen thong than hoc Dong Ten. Va bay gi van cha phai la qua muon e co the phat huy Linh Thao theo chieu hng than hoc thc chng, t nhat la nhng ni gap phai thach o khi can oi thoai vi giao thuyet cu o Phat giao.

"Chiem Niem" Hay La "Giac Ngo" ?

Hien co mot khuynh hng ang nam ngoai moi vong kiem soat - nh toi se e cap ti sau ay, khuynh hng dung danh t "chiem niem" nh la mot t ng chup mu het y nghia cua nhng g la thieng lieng, tam linh. V the, chiem niem c hieu nh la cai mang lai gia tr thieng lieng lai cho tat ca nhng g khac: khong co chiem niem, hoat ong ch con la nao ong; khong co chiem niem phung vu ch con la cai xac nghi thc. Thc ra, a co loai hoc thuyet lu hanh gia mot so than hoc gia u ai i song mot ashram (nha chiem niem) trong vung Nam A, chu trng rang "li mi goi moi ngi nen thanh" thc s co nghia la mi goi moi ngi "song chiem niem"! Va d nhien, theo ho, t ng ay a tr thanh ong nghia vi kinh nghiem ve Thien Chua.

Trong khi o, t ng ay c dung trong sach v kyto theo t nhat la ba y nghia khac nhau. Linh Thao thng dung t ng "chiem niem" e ch cach thc lay tr tng tng ma gi len nhng tam tnh cam tnh (affective), la nhng cam nhan t ban chat, khong lu lai ni cac khu vc ly thuyet cua tr oc, nhng lang dan xuong tan trong ni sau tham cua con tim, va con tin chnh la ni con ngi rung cam mot cach tan goc va toan dien. Cac cuoc chiem niem ve cuoc song, ve cac bien co va con ngi cua c Kyto trong cac Tuan th hai, th bava th t cua Linh Thao (LT 101tt) eu thuoc loai o. Noi bat nhat trong cac cuoc linh thao nay la nhng hnh anh th giac, tuy nhien cac giac quan khac cung c dung ti. Chnh the, khi x dung ngon ng v giac, Inha muon am ch en loai kinh nghiem cam tnh noi tren vi "mui v noi tam" va coi o la ieu ang tm kiem hn la lo chat ong cho nhieu hieu biet (tr thc ly thuyet: LT 1).

Loai chiem niem nay tng ng vi nhng g cac ao hu Phat giao goi la anussati, tc la giac ngo sau xa, hoac la anupassana, nghia la loi nhn tam niem ve cac oi tng gam suy, chang han nh la nhn ve con ngi c Phat, hay la ngay ca mot xac chet h thoi. Th en, "chiem niem" cung co the la mot t ng chuyen mon e ch trang thai than b tuyet nh cua loai cau nguyen thien phu. Nhng theo mot trng phai than hoc chuyen nghien cu ve y nghia cua chiem niem, th i song than b (hay la "kinh nghiem trc cam ve Thien Chua") la ieu thc s ch xay ra trong i cau nguyen chiem niem ma thoi. Hoat ong ch thc s la thieng lieng ao c khi no quy hng ve vi va tuon trao ra t chiem niem. Hien chung ta ang dung y nghia nay e nh nghia cho tu c.

Tng ng vi trang thai than b va noi tren ay, trong Phat giao co panenea, tc la hnh thc cao nhat cua trang thai trc tri (gnosis) dan ti t do cua niet ban. Va tnh trang nay thng c mo ta qua nhng dien ng th giac nh: vipassana, vidassana co nghia tng ng vi "s minh man thanh thoat thau suot" en tan chan ly cuoi cung. Chiem niem con mang mot y nghia khac na, vi tnh chat ac thu Inha, v the co lien quan trc tiep ti noi dung bai viet nay: y nghia nay khong hoan toan tach biet khoi hai y nghia tren kia, va c bieu th qua cau: "tm kiem Thien Chua trong moi s va moi s trong Thien Chua", hay la "tm thay Chua trong moi s". Cac t ng nha Phat neu tren ay khong tng ng mot chut nao vi y niem nay. No cung cha hoan toan giong loi "cau nguyen thien phu" ni cac v song kinh nghiem than b thng gap. ung hn, phai noi la no bieu th mot tam trang y thc (awareness) ve Thien Chua mot cach trng ky qua cam tnh thng la co an ui kem theo gia va nh trung gian cua cac hoat ong tong o am nhan v bac ai va vang phuc. Theo toi ngh, dien ng "chiem niem trong hoat ong" a c mot trong cac tu s Dong Ten au tien tac nen e ch nhng ngi nhan c n song thng xuyen trong trang thai don het tam tr hng ve vi Chua nh the.

ang tiec thay la ngon t "chiem niem" dung trong dien ng tren ay a b tron lan vi y nghia th hai cua chiem niem, cho nen de gay ngo nhan, va v the ma khong con sac ben u e dien dch cho ung tinh than Inha. Can phai loai bo ra khoi dien ng noi tren moi cach hieu hoat ong tong o hay la cong tac t thien va phuc vu cong ly nh ch la nhng kinh nghiem ve Thien Chua thuoc loai th yeu va gian tiep, va phai nh kinh nghiem ve Thien Chua qua cau nguyen chiem niem mi mang c tnh chat va danh nghia nh the .

T mot oan oc thay trong cuon Hoi Ky (Memorial, so 129) cua chan phc Phero Favre, la ngi rat ang tin cay khi dien dch tinh than Inha, chung ta co the suy ra rang viec gap Chua thc s ("chiem hu c Kyto" theo kieu noi cua chan phc) he tai cho thc thi y Chua va thc thi vang phuc, cho dan than chu toan s mang cua c Giesu tren tran gian va hoat ong tong o cung nh lam cong tac phuc vu bac ai va cong ly; con nhng khi t ng chiem niem c dung ti, th phai c hieu la e ch viec gap Chua qua cam tnh trong cau nguyen. Tom lai, "chiem niem" la cam thc kinh nghiem ang co ve Thien Chua nh trung gian cua cac cong tac phuc vu bac ai va cong ly. o la ng loi tu c ma nhng ngi dan than hoat ong xa hoi tren khap the gii ang khao khat.

Ro rang la ngon ng th giac dung trong t "chiem niem" hay la anupassana, vipassana, v.v... khong dien ta ay u c y niem noi len cam thc ve Thien Chua, ham ngu trong loai than b theo mau thc phuc vu ma Inha a song qua. Tm kiem Thien Chua trong moi s th day cong hn la ch ngam nhn Thien Chua. Nhng nhan nh tren ay co the a chung ta nhn ve cach thc hanh sati trong Phat giao: o la mot trang thai "y thc" lien tuc, hoac la thai o "chu tam" i kem theo sinh hoat hang ngay. Trong Phat giao Tieu tha, co mot loi linh thao het sc tham tha, o la cach thc satipatthana, tc la xay dng thai o "chu tam", luyen tap e lien tuc cham chu.

Nhng y niem tru cot cua nen tu c Phat giao: appamada, amoha, bodhi, tat ca eu quy nguyen ve trang thai thng xuyen canh giac, san sang va tnh tao, hoac la chu tam ay. o la nhng y niem trong Phat giao co y nghia tng ng vi nepsis (canh giac) va diakrisis (nhan nh) cua cac ngi kyto Hy lap ngay trc. Ngay ca ngi l hanh i tren con ng tam loi do c Phat phat hien, cung phai gi thai o lien tuc chu tam en nhng g a dan ti giai thoat (mc o hoan hao) cung nh lien tuc chu tam en nhng g can tr bc tien ay.

en ay, toi xin co nhan nh nh sau: loai ngon ng thnh giac co the hu hieu hn loai ngon ng th giac e lam cho chieu kch canh giac/san sang noi bat han len? Phat giao Tieu tha chu yeu la mot ton giao dung ngon t ch khong phai la dung dau ch (b tch). Savaka la t chuyen mon dung e ch ngi mon o, va co nghia la "thnh gia/ngi nghe" (li cu o: dhamma); t nay cung ong nghia vi "thanh nhan". Thc ra, trong truyen thong An o, luc au t shruti co nghia la mac khai, ven m, nhng o la hanh ong nghe hn la thay.

Cung vay, y niem cua Inha ve tac vu tu s Dong Ten cung co tnh cach chu yeu ngon s, nghia la lam ngi phat ngon phuc vu Li Chua, hn la lo tac vu phung t vi viec ban phat cac b tch [9] , va truc chnh cua ng hng tu c Inha la cho "tuan phuc" hay la "nghe li" (obaudire), tc la luon luon m rong long ma on nhan ke hoach Thien Chua e ra cho chung ta. Thai o san sang oi vi Li Chua la khong g khac hn thai o "dng dng" ("bnh tam") thng hay b hieu sai; thai o nay ham ngu no lc luyen tap tam hon e luon luon san sang lang nghe va thc thi tieng Chua; o la mot thai o yeu men tch cc en o coi tat ca nhng g khac eu la th yeu so vi ieu ma "Thien Chua Ch Ton" (divina majestad) truyen day e mang lai n cu o cho chung ta va cho tha nhan chung ta (LT 23). o la thai o "chu tam" thng trc oi vi cu canh, oi vi mc o hoan hao va tinh khiet trong lanh can phai at ti (cho moi ngi va cho toan the tao vat), bang cach thc thi nhng g nghe Chua noi (LT 1). Y nghia sinh ong cua "nhan nh" hay la cua "tnh yeu nhan nh" la the. Va tat ca nhng ieu ay c tong ket lai trong ng hng goi la "than b theo mau thc phuc vu". o la ly do tai sao viec xet mnh hang ngay, hoi tam, i vao trong tam hon e y thc, e lu tam ve cuoc song cua mnh, ong mot vai tro chnh yeu trong ng hng tu c Inha.

Ngon t cung nh y niem dung e dien at thc the cua chiem niem khong nhng a thieu sot trong viec lam cho y nghia phong phu co chung cua hai truyen thong to hien ro, ma con nen c anh lac ng hung ngay ca nhng ngi song theo tu c Inha. Xin cho toi c nhan manh en iem nay: ly do gay ra thieu sot nh the khong phai ch v mot mc ong khung trong loai ngon ng th giac ma tu c Inha dung, nhng la v trong thi au cua lch s tu c Inha, viec dung t ng th giac keo theo hai hnh thc bien dang nguy hiem nh sau:

Hnh thc th nhat la loi "nhn xem" Thien Chua theo kieu noi cua nhng ngi chuong van hoa Hy lap, nghia la coi Thien Chua nh la cai ep toi cao e chiem ngam, va coi moi th hoat ong eu la th yeu, ch e chuan b cho cuoc chiem ngam ay hanh phuc (hng kien/beatific vision) kia thoi. Kinh Thanh khong co day nh vay. Ngc lai, la nhng ngi hoat ong tch cc ma ong thi cung la nhng ngi tham nhuan tinh than cau nguyen sau xa nh thanh nhan hang mong muon, cac con cai cua Inha phai biet coi hoat ong (tong o) nh la boi canh va nh la muc tieu cau nguyen [10] .

Hnh thc th hai la loi bien dang van hoa oi t truyen khau ra van t, t Li rao truyen va nghe biet trong giay phut hien tai cua lch s, gia long mot dan toc, ra li viet ghi trong kinh sach va oc biet cung nghiem suy mot cach rieng t. Trong loi lectio divina(ngam oc Li Chua mot cach ca nhan), Li Chua co the se khong con noi qua lch s va cong oan, va nh the tr thanh xa cach, ch con nh mot oi tng chiem niem phi lch s (ahistorical/ khong c xac nh trong khong gian va thi gian)! Sc sinh ong va tnh cach gan gui cua Li Chua la ang a ra e ngh va hang ch i cau tra li se b ton thng; va thai o san sang, canh giac, lu tam can phai co oi vi giay phut hien tai, ay va bay gi, nghia la nhng g ca Phat giao Tieu tha lan ng loi tu c Inha coi la bach thiet va muon truyen at e chung ta ghi tac vao trong cuoc song, th dan dan i ti cho b thay the bi mot trang thai t ky xuat than (self-hypnotic trance).

Va nh the, roi ay t ng "chiem niem" co con c gi vai tro noi nhat trong viec xac nh y niem ve tu c ma truyen thong a tng danh cho, va t o se tr thanh yeu to can ban dung e nh nghia cho chnh tu c hay khong? Theo toi ngh th viec thay oi cach dung va y nghia mot t ng mau chac chan se keo theo viec phat hien lai noi dung ch thc no muon dien ta. t nhat ieu nay ung nhng ni hai ng hng tu c Inha va Tieu tha gap nhau va anh hng ho tng nhau. Bi v, trong ca hai truyen thong tu c nay, iem chu chot la t bo chnh mnh, ch khong phai la chiem niem thuan tuy, cho du chiem niem c coi nh la mot loi "thc tap" (exercise) hu ch va ca can thiet na.

Ban Nga Got Khoi Cai Toi

Kinh nghiem thach o nhat trong moi tng quan gap g gia Phat giao va Kyto giao la cuoc kham pha ra vai tro tru cot cua viec "t bo chnh mnh" trong Phat giao cung nh trong tu c Inha. Bi v ch ky gay can tr cho gnosis (trc tri) trong Phat giao cung nh tao nen thai o ruong bo agape (c ai) trong Kyto giao.

Khuynh hng e cao thai o t ky khang nh (self-assertion) va co xuy viec t ky thanh tu (self-fulfilment) phan ng de hieu oi lai vi mot so ng hng tu c khoai chu kho (masochistic) trong qua kh nh ang thay hien nay, khong tao c bau kh thuan li e thao luan ve e tai neu ra tren ay. Du sao th qua cach thc chung dan en cho tm ra chan ly can ban, cac cuoc hanh trnh thieng lieng cua ngi sang lap Phat giao cung nh cua ngi sang lap Dong Ten, cho thay nhng iem tng ong la lung. eu xuat than t gia nh quy phai va theo binh nghiep, ca hai a at en mc y thc sau xa ve nhu cau bach thiet can phai thay oi cuoc song tan goc re; roi ca hai eu a dan bc vao trong con ng khac kho qua trn en o gan nh ch biet lo hanh ha lay mnh (atta-kilamatha) cho ti luc kham pha ra c rang t do that s khong nam trong khac kho nhng la ni con ng trung dung cua no lc at ti mc "t ky thanh tu qua co gang t bo chnh mnh".

Toi y thc rang giao thuyet ay can khang nh lai gia tr thc s cua mnh chong lai nhng phe bnh ch trch t ba pha khac nhau a ra: t cac nha than hoc thuoc khuynh hng t do, t cac nha than hoc giai phong va t cac nha than hoc n quyen.

Trong boi canh than hoc thuoc khuynh hng t do tai tay phng, viec e cao "pham gia con ngi" cung nh cach thc loai than hoc nay trnh bay ve cac quyen con ngi t nhat qua kieu phat bieu thong thng oc thay trong cac sach bao hien nay a at quyen toi thng cua cai toi ca nhan lam nen tang, trung tam va nh cao cho mot xa hoi cong bang can phai xay dng. T o, viec "t ky thanh tu" c e cao qua mc trong loi nhn nay. Va v the, neu oi hoi "t bo chnh mnh" b nhn vi mot cap mat nghi k th au co g la la.

ay co hai iem can lu y ti: trc tien, loi cac nha than hoc theo khuynh hng t do nhan thc ve ban nga xem ra khong co the khang c lai c loi phe bnh tan pha cua cac nha than hoc giai phong ben Nam My [11] . Th en: ay khi at toan bo van e e nghien cu, chung ta i t vien anh cua "ngi khac" (tha nga) hn la cua ban nga, va cua nghia vu hn la cua quyen li. Chang han: Kinh Thanh Do thai at van e ve ban nga trong khuon mau giao c ve "bon phan" oi vi ngi khac, ac biet la oi vi nhng ngi yeu the [12] . Trong ngon t van hoa An o c cac tn o Phat giao mac nhien chap nhan, no lc t bo chnh mnh la mot he luan rut ra t hoc thuyet chu trng rang khuynh hng bam sinh cua ban nga nghieng chieu ve ngi khac (tha nhan) tc la kiep trc vi nhng bon phan i kem theo (dharmah: Phat phap), lam cho no lc e a ban nga cua mnh at en mc thanh tu khong the thanh cong c neu khong biet "t che" (self-restraint). Trong khuon mau t tng Inha cung the: thai o hng chieu ve vi tha nhan nam sau trong nh nghia cua ban nga en o ban nga khong the at en c mc thanh tu neu khong biet theo hng "lech tam" (eccentric) e i ti tam iem sau tham nhat cua ban nga ma thc ra nam ngoai ban nga, tc la i vao trong "ang Hoan Toan Khac" (Totally other).

Giong nh cac nha than hoc giai phong, chung toi cung gi thai o de dat v s rang giao thuyet chu trng "t bo chnh mnh nham at en mc thanh tu sung man cua chnh con ngi mnh" nh a noi tren ay, co the dan ti loi nh nghia tu c theo khuynh hng quy nga (self-centred), phan xa hoi. Tuy nhien cung nen lu y rang trong chng trnh bao la cua viec giai phong con ngi, ca nhan va xa hoi lien quan khang kht vi nhau. ay chung ta ch nghien cu rieng re co mot kha canh cua van e, va khong mot may may co y choi bo kha canh kia. Ngoai ra, cuoc tranh luan gia cac nha than hoc thuoc the gii th ba trong ba luc a a xac nhan rang ch dung phan tch xa hoi ma thoi th cha u e giai quyet cac van e gap thay gia boi canh au tranh giai phong. Viec phan tch ban nga vi cap mat hng ve noi tam la mat ben kia cua viec phan tch giai cap, nh chung toi a dan chng trong cuoc tranh luan va noi [13]

Ca chung toi na, chung toi cung ong y vi cac nha than hoc n quyen khi ho tuyen bo rang s viec giao thuyet chu trng t bo mnh tren ay trong qua kh a b lam dung e xay len tren mo ma cua ban nga n gii b giet chet, mot kieu giao hoi va xa hoi u ai nam gii a hung hang, la ieu ang trach va ang len an, khong dung th c. Tuy nhien, thay v at van e nghi ng gia tr ch thc cua giao thuyet "t bo chnh mnh" nh mot t nha than hoc n quyen lam, th toi se thch lam nh the nay hn, tc la hoi xem nam gii co thc hanh giao thuyet kia vi cung mot long hang say het nh khi ho em no ap at len vai phan na kia cua nhan loai hay khong. ieu tot b lam dung, th o nhat nh khong phai ly do e vt bo no i.

Ai a tng co dp c Inhahng dan e lam cai ma kieu noi hung manh cua Balthasar goi la "cuoc hanh trnh i vao a nguc cua canh t tri (self-knowledge)" [14] cua Tuan au trong Linh Thao, th se khong ngan ngai thu nhan rang cai toi la ke thu duy nhat cua ban nga. T o, ieu ma ngi ta thng day noi rang cac tao vat khac co the tr thanh chng ngai cho chung ta tren ng i gap Chua nh "hoc thuyet kinh vien coi tao vat nh la phng tien" van ngam ch, va o cung la ieu a len loi c vao trong phan nhan nh goi la Nguyen ly va nen tang cua Linh Thao (LT 23) ch la hnh thc hieu lam ve nhng g xay ra trong nhng goc xo sau kn cua tam long con ngi. Co mot ke duy nhat lam cho Thien Chua phai xa chung ta: ke ay chnh la cai toi cua chung ta. Chnh cai toi do ban nga tao ra, thng noi day khang c lai Thien Chua va "dung" cac tao vat khac nh la dung cu e t thoaman lay mnh, thoa man long tham cua mnh. Chnh the, "dung" tao vat tantum quantum (ung theo mc nhu cau chnh ang oi hoi) ngay ca e i ti vi Chua th cung la mot loi hanh ong loi lam, va v the khong bao gi co the tr thanh mot kinh nghiem ve Thien Chua c. Di bat c hnh thc nao, thai o quy nga van la mot toi pham ti tha nhan, o la cha xet g ti tnh cach t huy cua no.

Tuy nhien, nhng khi khong b rang buoc nhieu bi than hoc kinh vien, Linh Thao Inha thng gi en cho chung ta s iep nay la tnh yeu phai to hien qua hanh ong t hien (LT 231). Tnh yeu don thuc cai toi ch ky tach rieng tien en cho chet i e co the song day thanh cai toi co quan he vi ke khac. Tien trnh ca nhan ln len nh the cho en mc sung man cua con ngi, bang cach thong hiep vi tha nhan, th gan bo trc tiep vi s iep can ban nhat cua c Kyto day rang: theo ban chat, t do cua ban nga rieng toi xoay chung quanh t do cua tha nhan la nhng ngi c Tha V Toi Cao (Supreme other) uy quyen e tiep nhan cung nh e nhoi nan nen t do kia cua toi (Mt 25, 34-46).

o la ly do tai sao bat chap tat ca moi khuynh hng i ngc lai, moc len t trong cung nh t ngoai Dong Ten, Inha van khang khang gi vng lap trng e manh me khang nh rang dau ch ch thc cua mc trng thanh thieng lieng khong phai la kinh nguyen the thc, cung chang phai la cau nguyen chiem niem, nhng la t bo chnh mnh (xem LT 189). Thanh nhan hieu "t bo chnh mnh" trc het la hn h tiep nhan nhng kho khan nhoc nhan va th thach gan lien vi cong tac hoat ong tong o am nhan v tung phuc cung nh v bac ai, e qua o noi len long yeu men oi vi Thien Chua va tha nhan [15] . T o Inha xac nh rang tieu ch cua Linh Thao khong phai la mc hoan thien trong cau nguyen nhng la no lc e tra lai t do cho ban nga bang cach giai phong no khoi nhng khuynh hng ch ky cua cai toi, va e tm/gap y Chua (LT 1); co nhng cho khac, Inha ch n gian noi rang chu ch cua Linh Thao la chinh phuc cho c chnh mnh (cai toi cua mnh: LT 21). Khong co g la tng phan o ca. c Thien Chua goi e am nhan phan vu Ngai trao cho trong s mang dng the cua c Giesu (tu c da tren hoat ong tong o c hieu nh la hanh ong tung phuc tuyet oi), chung ta cung c keu mi e hy sinh tat ca, ca en ban than (ban nga) cua mnh na, cho muc ch tong o ay (tu cc hieu nh la "thai o bnh tam"). Nen tang cua giao thuyet Inha nam iem nay: no lc "khong ngt t bo chnh mnh" i kem theo phan vu tong o, chnh la ieu lam cho cau nguyen nen de dang va hanh ong tr thanh trang thai ket hp vi Chua (kinh nghiem trc cam ve Thien Chua/mystical).

Du sao th y niem cua c Phat ve "t bo chnh mnh" cung khong phai gii han trong lanh vc ren luyen i song ma thoi, nhng theo nh Phat giao Tieu tha cat nghia th con gom ham mot y nghia ban the hoc (ontological) na, va v the co tnh cach triet e hn quan niem Inha. Thoat tien, y niem ay cho thay rang nhan v la mot ban the khong hon (soul-less: anatta), nghia la ch gom mot loat nhng "choc lat" tam ly dao ong ma khong co mot c hu the (substratum) thng xuyen bat t nao ca: o la chan ly giai thoat thau triet c nh trc tri (gnosis). Ngc vi quan niem "anh la cai o" (You are That) cua Ve a giao (Vedanta), Phat giao chu trng rang khong co chuyen "toi" hay " cua toi" g ca!

Viec c Phat phu nhan ban nga va ong thi nhan manh noi rang ban nga la ni an nau duy nhat cua ca nhan (atta-sarana) va la chiec ao duy nhat gia ai dng cuoc song, a lam cho cac hoc gia hien ai phai suy ngh tm toi nhieu; co ngi a ra giai thch cho rang co hai ban nga: mot ban nga e huy diet i va mot ban nga e lo trau doi ao luyen [16] . Toi khong muon i en cho don ep, thu hep b nhiem ve ban nga vao trong gii han cua nhng con so. Nghch thuyet van con nguyen o: trong toi co mot ban nga, ma "thc ra" (paramatthato) no khong hien hu.

Neu hoc thuyet o co ve duy h vo (nihilistic), th co the la v, giong nh Inha, chung ta co thoi quen quan niem theo mo thc van hoa Hy lap e manh me qua quyet la linh hon hien hu bat diet va khong the h nat, thay v suy ngh theo cach thc Kinh Thanh nhn con ngi e roi t o gii thieu linh hon mot cach nhe nhang em du, ma khong chut bam vu vao kieu xac quyet va noi? [17] . Hnh anh ve ban tnh con ngi sa oa qua o Inha gi len cho thay "linh hon b giam ham trong the xac hay h nat" (LT 47), phan anh mot ly thuyet khong co g la chu yeu oi vi tu c kyto giao. Viec tn o Phat giao phu nhan s hien hu cua mot ban the thieng lieng khong chet va khong bien the trong con ngi la hnh thc nhan nh ro rang nhat, khong thuoc vong anh hng cua Kinh Thanh nhng lai gan tng t vi giao ly trong Kinh Thanh noi ve tnh chat thu tao bui at cua chung ta; noi cach khac: cuoc hien hu vay mn cua chung ta la hong an tuyet oi nhng khong Thien Chua ban. Chung ta la g neu khong phai la nhng bnh gom lam bang at set? Chang phai chung ta ch la bun at nhan c hi th cho khong cua Chua e tr thanh nhng con ngi song ong va v the ma chung ta cung se tr ve lai vi bui tro o sao? [18] .

Loi nhn con ngi nh the hoan toan vang bong trong Linh Thao Inha; noi the khong co nghia la no khong map m lo dang qua ng loi "Kyto hoc" cua cac Tuan th hai va th ba. Tat nhien la phai co oc tng tng va sang tao mot chut th mi rut ra c ban tnh ch thc cua con ngi t nhng g trong cac Tuan o ven m cho thay con ngi cua c Giesu. Va Inha cho thay la neu thc s thanh nhan a hieu biet c Giesu, th chnh la nh a biet i theo bc chan cua Ngai. (Co bao gi ai a tm ra c mot cach thc nao khac e hieu biet c Giesu au?) o chnh la c Giesu cua than hoc thc chng, ch khong phai cua cac nha than hoc kinh vien.

Hnh anh Inha e ra ve c Giesu co the tr thanh sac sao hn neu c mot loi "Kyto hoc-Thanh linh" (Spirit-Christology) bo tuc cho: o la loi Kyto hoc nghieng theo cac giao phu nhieu hn la theo cac nha kinh vien. Loi than hoc nay nhn c Giesu nh la ngi b tc het ban nga. Khi mang than phan lam ngi, th nh chung ta Ngai tr thanh mot bnh gom mong don lam bang at set, va c gi nguyen ven nh hi th tnh yeu chuyen sc song - tc la Thanh Linh - cua Ngi Cha ay long me hien cua chung ta. c Giesu la chiec bnh de v cha ng Thanh Linh ay, pneumatophor; chung ta cung c mi goi e thanh bnh cha ng Thanh Linh nh the , nhng toi loi can ngan khong e chung ta song theo li mi goi ay. Giong chung ta, c Giesu cung khong co ban nga: co the noi la Ngai khong co atta rieng cua mnh, ma ch co ban nga cua Thien Chua.

Theo mot cach dien dch "Kyto hoc-Thanh linh" c chap nhan, th c Giesu ch thc la "tuan phuc hien than" va la thai o "san sang toan ven", la "li xin vang khong ngt tha len vi Thien Chua Cha", va "khong phai t mnh la cu canh" (Balthasar), nhng "khong hn khong kem la mot cuoc hien hu hoan toan vay mn" (Kasper), cho nen, nh mot bnh at ng Thanh linh, Ngai c danh cho than phan b dap nat tren thap gia tai hoa, v tan thanh tng mieng, e ban tung toe ra tren khap the gii nc Thanh Linh co sc cha lanh [19] . c Giesu la cach thc Thien Chua chon e tuon o tnh yeu cua mnh ra, ma tnh yeu la ban nga cua Thien Chua. c Giesu la hanh ong "lech tam" cua Thien Chua i tm tam iem cua chnh mnh, nam ngoai pham vi rieng cua Thien tnh, trong "ke khac" gia loai ngi: propter nos homi-nes et propter nostram salutem descendit decaelis (V loai ngi chung toi...).

c Giesu ay, ang a mac khai mnh ra cho nhng ai san sang theo Ngai i en tan "bac ba cua khiem ha" (LT 167) bang cach suneneata (kenosis/t lam cho mnh ra h vo/t huy) qua con ng thap gia: chnh c Giesu ay la ang ban Thanh Linh, tc la ban Ban Nga ch thc e nang ngo hau chung ta khoi b sa sup mot cach khong hoan chuyen c, khoi b ri vao trong a cuon loi ve vi bui at, gan lien vi ban tnh hay chet cua chung ta; va thoi hi ma ban "ten rieng" nhng khong cho chung ta e nh o moi mot ngi chung ta c ng vng trong ban sac ac thu cua mnh. Nhan chan rang ngoai vong lien he vi "Tha V" (the other), khong co mot ban nga ch thc nao hien hu ca: o chnh la khon ngoan do thap gia mang lai; ung la trc tri (gnosis) phat sinh t c ai (agape) vay.

 

Nguyen The Minh chuyen ng.

 


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[2] Ve s kien t ng dalidda c a vao trong cac ngon ng An o, xin xem: Chakravarty, U. The social philosophy of Buddhism and the problem of inequality", Social compass, XXXIII/2-3 [1986], tr. 205)

[3] xin xem Pieris, A., An Asian Theology of Liberation (Orbis Books, New York, 1988), tr. 20-23, 38-50, 75-76, 121 va cac tr. ke tiep

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[13] xem Pieris, A., An Asian Theology of Liberation, tr. 80-81 va tt. Cung nen oc ve cuoc ban luan ve ngheo kho ca nhan, ibid., tr. 15-20

[14] Von Balthasar, H.U., Church and world (Herder and Herder, New York, 1967), tr. 104

[15] Sterli, J., "Ignatian prayer 'Seek God in all things'", Woodstock letter, Spring 1965 (Reprint, New Jersey, no date)

[16] xem Pieris A., "Citta, atta and attabhavain Pali exegetical writings", Buddhist studies in honour of Walpola Rahula (A.VV., Gordon Fraser, London, 1980), tr. 213-222

[17] de Silva, L.A., The problem of the self in Buddhism and Christianity (Study Centre for Religion and Society, Colombo, 1975), tr. 72-84

[18] xem Pieris, A., "The Spirit dimension of change", The Way, 28/1 (January 1988), tr 34-41

[19] O' Donnell, J., "In him and over him: the Holy Spirit in the life of Jesus", Gregorianum 70/1(1989), tr. 28, 34, 36