THAN HOC HE THONG:

S MANG VA PHNG PHAP (II)

NAM PHNG PHAP NGHIEN CU ANG THNH HANH

  Francis Schussler Fiorenza [1]

Hien nay, trong lanh vc than hoc cong giao , ang co nhieu phng phap va cach thc nghien cu khac nhau, vi nhng net ac trng ca biet, c em ra x dung. e co the hieu c thc trang khac biet ay, xin c trnh bay ve mot so the loai ien hnh sau ay : phng phap tien nghiem, phng phap chu giai, phng phap phan tch, phng phap oi chieu, va phng phap giai phong. S d cac phng phap nay c coi la nhng the loai ien hnh, chnh la v chung khac biet nhau ve phng dien ly thuyet. Tuy nhien, trong thc te, cac phng phap ay khong loai tr lan nhau, va thng khi lai con c phoi hp thc s vi nhau na. Du co chu trng theo mot phng thc nghien cu ca biet nao o, th mot than hoc gia cung van co the vay mn nhan thc, pham tru va phng phap lam viec cua cac phng thc nghien cu khac. Chang han mot nha than hoc giai phong co the dung mot loi phan tch tien nghiem hoac la mot hoc thuyet chu giai mi c e xng gan ay, vao viec minh giai mot luan chng ac biet nao o, cho du than hoc giai phong xet theo t the la trao lu than hoc, co rat nhieu khac biet vi than hoc tien nghiem, hay than hoc chu giai .

THAN HOC TIEN NGHIEM

Khuynh hng tr ve vi chu the (tc la loi suy luan doc toan lc e chu tam vao viec tm hieu ve tnh chat chu the cua con ngi va ve vai tro ma tnh chat ay ong gi trong viec nhan thc cung nh trong tn ngng ton giao cua con ngi ) la loi bieu th trung thc nhat ve net ac trng cua phan ln than hoc cong giao hien ai, mot nen than hoc a tng phai vao the oi au vi nhng thach o ln, moc len t triet hoc tan thi do Descartes va Kant khi xng. Khuynh hng tr ve ay a ac biet thnh hanh trong cac the ky 18 va 19, khi ma nhieu trng phai than hoc tm cach e oi pho cho thch ang vi nhng thach o do triet hoc tan thi a ra. Tuy nhien, di thi Giao Hoang Pio IX va Leo XIII, cac co gang nh the a b c tuyet. c Leo XIII a chuan nhan hoc thuyet Toma nh la he thong triet hoc chnh thc cua Giao Hoi Cong Giao Roma. Do o, au the ky th 20, trong Giao Hoi Cong Giao, hoc thuyet Toma a tr thanh le loi ch ao chnh yeu cho cong tac nghien cu triet va than hoc. Nhng, trong cac thap nien 40 va 50, mot khi iem mi a thanh hnh. Lan nay th than hoc tm cach e phoi hp triet hoc tan thi vi triet hoc Toma. Can phai tm hieu cho t m chi tiet hn ve tien trnh ay, tien trnh bat tay vi triet hoc tan thi, ke t nhng bc do dam ban au, qua nhng thi b c tuyet cho en nhng no lc kien tr e khong ngng tiep tuc.

Khuynh hng tr ve vi chu the trong than hoc hien ai.

Nhng co gang ket nap va phoi hp triet hoc tan thi nh the, a bat au gat hai c nhng thanh qua ang ke vao au the ky 19. Geog Hermes, mot giao s than hoc tai ai hoc Munster va Bonn, a gia cong e lam sao thiet at cho than hoc mot khi iem kha d ket nap c nguyen tac hoai nghi trong triet thuyet cua Descartes. Du ch la mot hoc gia va tac gia than hoc tai gia song Vien ( Ao quoc), th Anton Gunther cung la ngi a gay c anh hng ln nhat oi vi gii than hoc cong giao noi tieng c hoi the ky 19. Gunther a co da theo nen tang cua khoa nhan loai hoc va dung cac pham tru mang am anh hng cua Descates, e khai trien than hoc. Con cac than hoc gia thuoc trng phai Tubingen (nh Von Drey, Mohler, Staudenmeier, Kuln va Schell) tai c, ac biet la vi nhan vat tieng tam nh Hegel, jacobi, Schleiermacher, va Schelling. [2] Cac than hoc gia nay a ra sc dung nhng suy t va pham tru rut ta - va a c cai bien i nhieu - t t tng cua cac triet gia va noi, ma khai trien than hoc cong giao, nham bac mot nhp cau noi ket noi dung va lch s cua c tin lai vi chu the con ngi.

Trao lu Tan kinh vien a phan ng chong lai cac no lc a ra nham giang hoa triet hoc tan thi vi than hoc cong giao. Cac luong anh hng t pha Giao Hoi cung nh t pha cac the lc chnh tr, a tac dung manh tren cac to chc va c s giao duc cong giao. Ket qua la nhieu than hoc gia tam c a b mat cho day. Hoc thuyet Toma th c Giao Hoang tuyen nhan lam khoa triet hoc chnh thc cua nen than hoc cong giao; cho du hoc thuyet ay, hoc thuyet ma ngay nay ngi ta thng goi la Tan hoc thuyet Toma, cung ch la mot nhanh rieng biet cua hoc thuyet Toma ma thoi. Va du trao lu Tan kinh vien co manh me phan ng chong lai triet hoc tan thi va thi ai Anh sang, th moi lien he con e ma trng phai ay co oi vi tan ai cung van ben chat, khong kem thua g moi quan he oi ch va noi tren ay. Tan hoc thuyet Toma phan biet ro rang gia t nhien ( Nature) va n thanh (grace), ni rong pham vi cua phan dan nhap vao c tin thanh mot khoa than hoc c ban cung nh bien giao, khac biet vi than hoc he thong. Cac bc phat trien ay a co c la do cong n sau rong cua chnh tan ai ma Tan hoc thuyet Toma chong oi [3]

Tuy nhien, tien trnh oi thoai vi triet hoc tan thi a khong cham dt vi viec ap at Tan hoc thuyet Toma. Vi thi gian, luan trao chong tan thi cung tan dan i; con cac than hoc gia Tan hoc thuyet Toma th rut dan lui khoi cuoc luan chien chong lai triet hoc tan thi. Thay vao o, nganh nghien cu s lieu a trien phat manh me [4] . Trong boi canh ay, mot so nhng ngi tha ke hoc thuyet Toma phuc hng, a th tm cach e bac nhp cau noi ket than hoc Toma lai vi triet hoc tan thi. Nhng than hoc gia cong giao co anh hng ln vao bac nhat trong thi cong ong Vaticano II cung nh trong thi hau cong ong, eu a c ao luyen theo truyen thong Tan kinh vien, va tat ca - tr Hans Kung va Joseph Ratzinger - a chon nhng chu e ve Toma e viet luan an hoac la nhng tac pham au tay ang ke cua mnh. Ho ra sc giai thch lai Toma Aquino theo mot ng hng va phng thc oc lap khoi nhng gia nh va loi nhn cua hoc thuyet Tan kinh vien. Ho khai quat nhng chieu kch than hoc trong t tng cua Toma va a chung len hang au, cung nh co phuc hoi nhng g anh hng Augutino con e lai trong than hoc Toma. Ho minh chng rang loi phan biet tru tng gia t nhien va sieu nhien ma hoc thuyet Tan kinh vien thng dung ti, khong phai la mot phng thc cua hoc thuyet Toma chnh thong. La mot trao lu than hoc, va bi khong e cho nhng hao nhoang cua tan thi me hoac ma vt bo qua kh han i, cung nh khong e cho nhng tiec nuoi nh ve qua kh am anh ma am ra chua chat ruong ray het nhng g ve tan ai, nen cac no lc tren ay a gay c anh hng manh me, hu hieu va sau rong. Noi cach khac, chnh nhng no lc ay a m ng a than hoc Toma en tiep xuc va oi thoai vi triet hoc tan thi .

Nhng thanh qua ma trao lu nay a mang lai c, th that la to ln. Karl Rhaner a a ra cac pham tru cua ca Kant lan Heidegger vao dung trong cong trnh tm hieu ve khoa hoc luan theo t tng Toma Aquino. [5] Qua hai thien khao luan ve an sung tac ong va ve moi tng quan gia noi ngon ( inner word) va cac y tng, Bernard Lonergan a lien he Toma lai vi chu thuyet tan thi trong nganh kha tri luan. [6] Trong thien khao luan nghien cu cach thc Toma hieu ve cac b tch, Edward Schillebeeckx a th at mot giay lien he gia cac b tch va hien tng gap g. [7] Ca thien khao luan cua Henri Bouillard viet ve moi quan he gia an ung va t nhien [8] lan cac cong trnh nghien cu cua Henri de Lubac ve tien trnh phat trien cua khai niem sieu nhien, eu neu bat cho thay tam trong yeu ma cac nhan to tha hng t he thong t tng cua Augutino, ong gi trong than hoc Toma, nhng lai khong c Tan hoc thuyet Toma lu y ti. [9] Va ca the he cac than hoc gia tiep sau o ( ac biet nhat la Johann Baptist Metz, Max Seckler va Otto Hermann Pesch) cung a tiep tuc oi thoai nh the vi Toma Aquino . [10]  

Hien tng luan tien nghiem theo Karl Rahner

a phat trien cua phng phap tien nghiem trong than hoc cong giao co mot tam quan trong ac biet. [11] T " tien nghiem " ( transcendental) la mot danh t chuyen mon trong triet hoc, mang nhieu y ngha gan lien vi nhieu giai oan lch s.  Trong triet hoc kinh vien, tien nghiem ch ve nhng g co the ap dung c cho moi hu the.  Chang han: "thien" la tien nghiem, v tnh chat ay co the dung e noi ve bat c mot vat hien hu nao ( nh Thien Chua, cac thien than, loai ngi , cac s vat the trong thien nhien), trong khi o, th "so lng" ch c dung cho cac thc tai vat chat ma thoi. Trong triet hoc tan thi, Kant a dung t tien nghiem e ch ve nhng ieu kien tien nhien ( a priori) can e cho kinh nghiem co the co c.  Theo ngha ay, mot cuoc phan tch tien nghiem la khong g khac ngoai mot cuoc khao xet ve nhng ieu kien tien quyet va tnh cach kha d cua viec nhan thc, bang cach khao xet ve tri nang con ngi.

Trong hoc thuyet Toma hien ai, t tien nghiem con mang mot y ngha th ba, bao ham ca hai y ngha tren ay.  Bi no ch ve nhng ieu kien ni pha chu the, can cho kha nang nhan thc, nen y ngha nay gom ham cach hieu cua Kant. V the, t tien nghiem lai c gan cho them t than hoc e ch ve cac ieu kien thiet yeu can phai co trong viec nhan thc mac khai. Than hoc he thong la tien nghiem khi no khao xet ve "cac ieu kien tien thien ni pha tn hu (ngi co long tin), can cho viec nhan thc cac chan ly trong yeu cua c tin." [12] Roi, t tien nghiem cung van con gi lai phan y ngha kinh vien cua no e ch ve chan tri vo bien cua tri thc con ngi. Theo ngha nay, th t tien nghiem lai ch ve a nang ong vo han cua tr tue con ngi hang ra sc khong phai la e nam cho c nhng oi tng nhat nh nao o cua kinh nghiem ma thoi, nhng con la e thau triet y ngha cua toan bo thc tai na.

Hoc thuyet Toma tien nghiem bat nguon t Joseph Marechal, mot giao s day triet tai kinh vien Dong Ten ben B. Marechal a phoi ket sieu hnh hoc Toma vi triet hoc tan thi, ac biet vi triet hoc cua Kant va Fichte.  Qua cong trnh giang huan va bo sach nam cuon mang ta e Le point de depart de la metaphysique, [13] Giao s a anh hng rat rong ln en cac triet hoc va than hoc gia cong giao tai Chau Au.  Gia cac than hoc gia chu anh hng cua Marechal e ai dien noi len ng hng nghien cu than hoc theo phng phap tien nghiem, Karl Rahner han la ngi co anh hng va tieng tam nhieu nhat.  Chu anh hng khong nhng cua Marechal, ma con cua ca Martin Heiegger na (ac biet la trong tac pham thi au), Karl Rahner a viet ve toan bo cac van e trong than hoc Kito.  Cac tac pham xuat ban do Rahner chu bien cung co tam bao quat ln va anh hng rong khong kem.  Trong nhieu nam, ong gia cong lo cho viec xuat ban bo Denzinger gii thieu cac van kien cua Giao Hoi, cung nh nhieu bo bach khoa t ien va t ien than hoc, nh Lexikon fluer Theology un Kirche, Sacramentum Muni, Dictionary of Theology, cung nhieu loat bai viet ve cac van e con ban cai, Questiones Disputatae. Ngoai ra, Rahner cung a ong gop nhieu trong viec thanh hnh t Concilium, la mot tap san quoc te ve than hoc.

Khi iem cua Rahner

Chu chot trong phng thc nghien cu cua Rahner la ky thuat phan tch kinh nghiem ma con ngi co oi vi tr thc va t do, coi o nh la kinh nghiem ve mot th "tien nghiem tnh tuyet oi va vo han." [14] Kinh nghiem ay va cau thanh va va bieu at tnh chat lch s cua con ngi, la nhng chu the t can coi rong m ra vi nhng g la tien nghiem va hng quy ve vi mau nhiem tuyet oi goi la Thien Chua.  Rahner quan niem rang thien hng can coi ay, thien hng quy ve vi thc the tuyet oi nh the, th khong ch n thuan ong gi vai tro cau thanh ban tnh con ngi ma thoi, nhng con la thanh cua phat sinh t s viec Thien Chua t thong at chnh mnh ra mot cach sung man trong lch s va hien dien mot cach hung hon gia loai ngi; va chnh s viec t thong at ay cung la mot tn trnh lch s: Lch s Thien Chua hien dien vi chc nang cu o, trong the gii.

Phng Phap cua Rahner

Rahner gii thieu phng phap cua mnh qua cac ng net sau ay: [15]

Th nhat, qua cac hanh ong tri thc va s dung t do, con ngi vt len tren ( tien nghiem hoa) chnh mnh. Hanh ong nhan thc ve mot oi tng ca biet nao o, hoac c muon mot hoat ong nhat nh nao o, la hanh ong co mot tam kch rong m bat tan. Hieu biet va c muon khong ch dng lai ni mot oi tng hay mot hanh ong duy nhat, nhng trai lai, co kha nang trai dai bat tan.  Do o, bc au tien chnh la kinh nghiem va noi ve tnh chat vo han cua s viec con ngi hieu biet va c muon, tc la kinh nghiem ve trang thai rong m cua chu the tnh ni con ngi hng ve vi thc tai vo bien, vt han len tren nhng g la hu han.  Tnh chat vo bien ay cua chan tri hieu biet va c muon thien phu ni con ngi, se noi bat len ro rang trong no lc at van e va tm hieu ve y ngha cua chan tri ay trong i con ngi.  Hang i tm cho ra y ngha ben kia ranh gii cac oi tng cua kinh nghiem, nen con ngi phai vao the oi dien vi mau nhiem khong the hieu noi.

Th hai, trong cuoc tm kiem ay, con ngi cam nhan ra rang mnh hu han en tan goc re, nhng hang khac khoai vi muon van cau hoi at ra bat tan. Con ngi cam nhan thay rang thc tai la mot mau nhiem khong the hieu noi, nhng ong thi, con ngi cung hy vong la cuoc i cua mnh se at en mot mc thanh tu cao ep nhat co the.  Con ngi hy vong  rang cuoi cung roi thc tai co y ngha.  Du hu han va chu gii mc, con ngi cung van nuoi hy vong la co ngay se nam tron c y ngha toan ven va tuyet oi.  Con ngi hy vong va tin tng rang mau nhiem tuyet oi cua hu the chnh la Ngai (thou), la ang ang cho moi ngi tuyet oi tin cay.

Th ba, Rahner chng giai cho thay rang cuoc hien hu lch s va cuoc hien hu noi tam cua con ngi ch la mot.  Tnh chat duy nhat ay ham ngu y ngha nay la s viec Thien Chua t thong at chnh mnh ra (mac khai) cung nh long ky vong ma con ngi hang ap u oi vi s viec ay, eu i xuyen qua trung gian cua lch s : ca hai cung eu cung nhau "xuat hien" trong lch s cua loai ngi.  V le o, nhng s co tnh cach lch s va bat tat (contigent) eu cung mot trat tuyen bao va thc tnh long ky vong vao s  hien hu va hien dien cua thc the vo bien va tuyet oi.  Tat mot li, niem hy vong ma con ngi hang ap u oi vi y ngha cua cuoc hien hu, la mot niem hy vong mang tnh chat lch s, v no hien len gia long lch s nh la ket qua cua s viec Thien Chua hien dien trong lch s loai ngi.  Theo cach Rahner giai thch, th vai tro lch s lam trung gian cho thc the vo bien trong lanh vc cua thc the hu han, co ngha la Thien Chua hien dien trc tien trong nhng s co tnh lch s va bat tat nh la mot li ha va mot niem hy vong, mac du cam thay than phan han hu va chet choc cua i con ngi [16]

Th t, song trong ieu kien cua lch s va thi gian, con ngi nghiem xet lch s hau tm cho ra li Thien Chua ha t ban mnh, la mot li chung quyet va khong the ao ngc.  Con ngi truy khao lch s e phat hien cho c cau tra li ve y ngha.  Con ngi co tm cho biet ve nhng g co u ieu kien e a y ngha cua lch s at c en mc thanh tu sung man va tuyet oi.  Con ngi i tm mot bien co lch s kha d mang lai cho the gii mot li oan ha khong the huy.

Th nam, iem cuoi cung trong phng phap cua Rahner la khai niem "ang Cu o tuyet oi": e giai thch ve khai niem nay, tac gia a can c theo luan chng noi rang ch co chu the t do mi co the bieu at c s viec Thien Chua hien dien ra trong the gii qua trung gian cua lch s mot cach khong the ao ngc.  Ch co chu the t o mi co the lam "mo mau" noi len s hien dien cua Thien Chua trong the gii.  V le, e c ban tang va nhan lanh mot cach t do, Thien Chua can phai c tien hanh va on nhan ni mot chu the nhan tnh t do.  Ca nhan ay chap nhan than phan hu han cua con ngi mnh, va c Thien Chua on nhan trong than phan cung thai o nh the, roi nh o ma co c y ngha mo mau cho the gii. 

oi chieu gia Aquino va Rahner

Neu em bo Tong Luan Than Hoc (summa Theologiae) va cuon  Nen Mong cua c Tin Kito ( Foundations of Christian Paith) oi chieu vi nhau, th se thay ro nhng oi thay quan trong, ca ve ga thuyet lan phng phap, a xay ra trong than hoc.  Toma a bien soan bo Tong Luan nh la mot pho cam nang than hoc cho cac sinh vien dung.  Con Rahner th bien soan tac pham cua mnh nh la mot "tap sach giao khoa can ban" ( nguyen ban bang tieng c dung t Grunkurs lam ta e) vi muc ch m loi vao cho cac sinh vien mi bc ti ngng ca than hoc va cac chan ly trong c tin kito.  Cho du viec oi chieu nh the khong phai la mot viec lam thch ang cho lam --v trong hai tac pham va noi, tac pham au la mot tong luan than hoc, con tac pham sau ch la mot van ban viet ve than hoc can ban-- th viec oi chieu ay cung van co c iem li nay la no giup cho nhan ro c rang cac gia thuyet than hoc mahai tac pham a dung ti, th rat khac biet nhau.

Rahner bat au cong trnh nghien cu vi viec gia cong phan tch ve con ngi, ve cac hanh ong nhan thc va c muon ni con ngi, cung nh ve khat vong bam sinh sau tham don thuc con ngi i tm cho ra y ngha cua cuoc hien hu.  Khat vong tm hieu ay va kinh nghiem ve mau nhiem tuyet oi cong vi kinh nghiem ve toi loi va an sung, la noi dung cac chng au cua cuon sach.  Tac gia a i t mot khi iem co tnh cach nhan loai hoc: nhan loai hoc khong nhng v a bat au cong trnh nghien cu vi viec phan tch nhan loai ma thoi, nhng con la v a noi ket cac chan ly can ban cua c tin kito vi van e con ngi.  Mac khai cua Thien Chua, lch s cu o, Kito hoc, Giao Hoi va cac b tch, cung nh canh chung hoc, eu c giai thch theo tam trong yeu ma chung ong gi oi vi con ngi. 

Con khi iem va cau truc cua Toma th lai quy than (theocentric).  Tiep sau cau hoi au tien ve ban chat cua sacra doctrina (giao thuyet thanh), Toma a bat au e cap en s hien hu va ban tnh cua Thien Chua --Thien Chua duy nhat va ba ngoi -- trong phan 1 cua bo Summa Theologiae (Tong Luan Than Hoc); roi tiep sau o, la ban ve cong trnh Thien Chua tao dng.  Phan hai viet ve ban tnh con ngi va ve cac sc nang cua ban tnh ay.  Phan ba trnh bay ve Kito hoc, cac b tch va canh chung hoc.  Le loi cau truc nh the a c coi nh la theo sat mo mau cua Aristot cung nh cua Tan phai Plato.  Giai thch ve Toma, phai Tan kinh vien a nhan manh noi rang cach phan chia thanh ba phan nh the th hoan toan an khp vi cac pham tru ve nguyen tac nhan qua theo Aristot:  phan mot nghiem xet Thien Chua nh la nguyen nhan tac thanh; phan hai nghiem xet Thien Chua nh la nguyen nhan cu canh, nh la cung ch; va phan ba nghiem xet Thien Chua nh la nguyen nhan mo mau cua moi s vat.  Cac s gia thi Trung co lai neu bat ve loi suy luan phai Tan Plato, la le loi nhan manh en s viec moi s vat eu bat nguon t Thien Chua, va rot cuoc eu se tr ve vi Thien Chua (exitus - reditus) [17] . Phan mot chnh la exitus: Thien Chua va cong trnh tao dng xuat phat t ban tay Thien Chua; phan hai chnh la reditus: cuoc tr ve vi Thien Chua; con phan ba th ban en mo mau va nhng phng the cua cuoc tr ve ay.  Cach giai thch va thay tren ay ve cau truc cua bo Summa, eu mac nhien nhn nhan rang bo sach ay a c to chc theo mo mau cau truc quy than.

Gia cuon Grundkurs va bo Summa, net khac biet hien len ro hn ca la luc nhan nh ve the ng va vai tro cua nhan loai hoc oi vi than hoc. Trong khi Toma at nhan loai hoc trong phan hai bo Summa, th Rahner lai e khoa nay ngay ni oan au cuon Grunkurs.  oi vi Rahner, nhan loai hoc la khi iem va ong thi cung la iem quy chieu thng trc cua cong tac suy t than hoc.  Khi iem la chnh noi long khat khao cua con ngi i tm cho ra y ngha toi hau, v long khao khat ay tat se dan ti viec at van e Thien Chua va nghiem xet lch s, ac biet la nghiem xet cuoc Thien Chua mac khai qua c Kito, hau tm cho ra cau giai ap thoa ang.  Toan bo noi dung cac chan ly c tin eu co lien he vi cac c cau to chc cuoc song con ngi, cung nh vi noi niem khat khao tm cho ra y ngha toi hau cua hien hu, ma con ngi hang ap u trong long.  The nen, ng loi than hoc ma Rahner theo uoi la tm cach e bac nhp cau lien he hoa hp gia hai ng hng quy nhan va quy than.  Hai ng hng ay chang nhng khong oi nghch nhau, ma con tng he tng quan lien i vi nhau mot cach can xng na.

Ben kia gii mc Than hoc Tien nghiem

Ngoai t the la mot trao lu co tam c ln trong than hoc can ai, khuynh hng tr ve vi chu the con co cong e y neu bat s mang cua than hoc trong cong tac lien ket noi dung va cac chu e cua than hoc lai vi chu the con ngi.  Tuy nhien, khuynh hng tr ve vi chu the cung khong tranh cho khoi c nhng phe bnh ch trch.  ac biet, Hans Urs von Balthasar bien luan noi rang chieu hng quy nhan trong than hoc can ai, nhat la khi c hieu theo cach Karl Rahner trnh bay, se thu hep han chan ly ton giao vao trong khuon kho cua nhan quan thuan tuy nhan loai hoc, va nh the se to ra khong may cong bnh cho lam oi vi cac tam nhn hay chieu kch khac.  Von Balthasar a chu trng khai trien tac pham chnh cua mnh ve than hoc he thong theo hnh thc ba phan: Phan mot phac hoa cac ng net chnh cua tham my hoc trong than hoc, e nhn en mac khai t quan iem "My".  Phan hai trnh bay mac khai theo hnh thc cua mot tan tham kch vi nhng tac ong va anh hng ho tng. Phan ba mieu ta mac khai nh la y tng va li noi.  Cac t mat ma cua ba phan tren ay la: than -hien linh ( theo-phany) = tham my hoc; than - hanh ong (theo-praxy) = kch trnh thuyet; va than luan hoc (theo-logy) = luan ly hoc . [18] Anh hng ma von Balthasar co oi vi Walter Kasper va Joseph Ratzinger, hien ro trong nhng nhan nh cac tac gia nay a ra nham phe bnh ng hng nghien cu theo phng thc tien nghiem cua Rahner.  Ngay trong phng phc nghien cu than hoc ma ong theo uoi, chnh Kasper cung a tm cach e dung phng cach hoa nhap lch s vao trong he thong suy t than hoc,  hau bo tuc cho phng phap tien nghiem; trong luc o, Ratzinger th lai to ra nang n oi vi truyen thong thi the ky 19 cua trng phai Tuebingen. [19]

Cong vi nhng nhan nh phe bnh nh thay tren ay, oi vi phng phap tien nghiem, con gap thay trong lanh vc than hoc hien ai, nhng phng thc nghien cu ang co tm cach e vt sang ben kia gii mc cua phng phap tien nghiem, bang cach thu gom tron vao trong s mang cua viec nghien cu than hoc, ca nhng chieu kch khac, nhng chieu kch co kha nang giup xac nh ung v tr cua vai tro chu the con ngi. [20]

Triet hoc ve ng hoc va thuyet chu giai hien ai eu nhan manh noi rang chu the con ngi cung ch  hien hu c trong the gii cua ngon ng va cua truyen thong van hoa ma thoi.  Cac the loai than hoc giai phong va than hoc chnh tr th e cao vu ai xa hoi chnh tr la moi trng ln rong bao quat va thuan li hn cho viec nhan ro pham v cua con ngi.  Cac trng phai nay nhan manh en tam quan trong cua cac chieu kch xa hoi va chnh tr trong cong tac xay dng y thc sac ben va thai o ton trong ung mc oi vi pham v con ngi.  Cac iem d ong vi phng thc tien nghiem se hien len ro hn qua phan trnh bay va phan tch tiep sau ay ve cac phng thc va ke ra mot cach khai quat tren.

THAN HOC CHU GIAI

Khoa chu giai la nganh nghien cu ve cac ly thuyet trong cach thc giai thch hoac dien giai. [21] Het moi phng thc nghien cu tha6an hoc eu mang tnh cach chu giai, bi le phng thc nao cung phai i qua ng loi giai thch, v du co giai thch Kinh Thanh, cac tn ieu, truyen thong hay kinh nghiem th cung eu la giai thch.  Hn na, mot vai than hoc gia con tm cach phoi hp phng thc phan tch tien nghiem vi hoc thuyet chu giai vao trong ng loi nghien cu rieng cua mnh.  Tuy nhien, hoc thuyet chu giai mi nhat lai nhan manh en tnh chat tien nghiem cua ngon ng oi vi chu the con ngi, ti o lam cho noi bat han nhng khac biet gia hai phng thc tien nghiem va chu giai trong no lc nghien cu than hoc.  Trong luc o, viec hoc thuyet chu giai e cao tnh chat tien nghiem cua ngon ng va tam kch pho quat cua khoa chu giai, a m rong ng cho nhieu t tan cong ch trch do pha cac the loai than hoc giai phong va than hoc chnh tr, cung nh do hoc thuyet phe bnh, a ra nham anh thang vao chnh hoc thuyet chu giai. [22]

Kinh Nghiem va Ngon ng

  Phng thc chu giai va phng thc tien nghiem cach biet nhau nhieu nhat la cho hai ben giai thch khac nhau ve moi quan he gia kinh nghiem va ngon ng.  Than hoc tien nghiem th da vao uy the cua kinh nghiem ton giao tiem tang trong cac bieu thc dien at c tin va giao ly.  ng hng tien nghiem coi ngon ng nh kh cu bieu at: cac cong thc giao ly la nhng menh e xac nh noi len mot kinh nghiem can ban ve mat ton giao.  Hoi au the ky hai mi, cac nha than hoc phai duy tan (modernist) chu trng cho rang kinh nghiem ton giao th can ban hn giao ly gap boi; nh the la v ho ch coi cac giao thuyet n thuan nh la nhng cach dung ngon ng ma bieu at kinh nghiem ton giao.  Do o, ho quan niem rang co the thay the cac bieu thc giao ly bang nhng cong thc tng t khac.

Con phai hoc thuyet chu giai th ch trch loi quan niem nh va thay tren ay, anh vao cac iem nh sau:  quan niem ve ngon ng va giao ly da theo chc nang bieu at nh the la khong lu y cho u en s kien ngon ng chang phai ch dien at khong thoi, ma con lam nen kinh nghiem na. The nen, ngon ng ton giao khong phai ch ong vai tro thuan tuy dien at ma thoi, nhng con gi vai tro cau thanh kinh nghiem ton giao na.  Chang the ma mot so than hoc gia phai hoc thuyet chu giai a ly luan noi rang khong nen quan niem ton giao thuan tuy nh la mot van e dien at, nhng ung hn, nh la mot hien tng van hoa va ng hoc. [23] Cung co nhng than hoc gia ly luan ngc lai: ho cho rang theo c ban ma noi th quan niem ve chc nang van hoa va ng hoc cua ngon ng la mot bc phat trien cao hn, va gom ham ma cung va vt qua ben kia gii mc triet hoc tien nghiem. [24] Quan niem theo hoc thuyet chu giai ve moi quan he gia ngon ng va kinh nghiem a gay c anh hng rong ln oi vi cong cuoc suy t than hoc.  Trong lanh vc nay, ang ac biet neu bat hn ca la anh hng cua cac triet gia Hans-Georg Gadamer va Paul Ricoeur.

Tac pham co ien: Uy the cua truyen thong

Gadamer phat bieu nh the nay ve iem chnh trong chu trng cua ong: "khong nen quan niem viec nhan thc nh la mot hanh ong chu quan rieng re, cho bang nh la viec tham d vao mot bien co trong truyen thong, nh la mot tien trnh truyen thong qua o, qua kh va hien tai c thng xuyen noi ket lai vi nhau." [25] Dung nhieu y niem chu chot khac nhau, Gadamer a giai thch va coi viec nhan thc ay nh la mot hanh ong thong d vao trong kho tang cua truyen thong.  Khai niem tac pham co ien ong gi mot vai tro chu chot trong ky thuat chu giai cua Gadamer.  La nhng van kien xuat chung, co sc hung hon minh hoa ve kha nang nhan thc cua loai ngi, cac tac pham co ien co mot tam trong yeu ac biet.  Hn na, cac tac pham co ien con tang cha mot "lch s ay hieu lc"(effective-history) bi v chung co kha nang dung anh hng ma tac ong len tren moi trng song cua chung ta, va xac nh ac net trong loi nhan thc cua chung ta ve chnh chung ta.  oi ngc lai vi thanh kien ma trao lu anh sang co oi vi truyen thong.  Gadamer a ra lap luan bien ho cho "thai o tien tham" (pre-judgment) coi trong cac tac pham co ien.  Tnh cach trng ton bat hu cua mot tac pham co ien chay dai theo dong lch s, la bang chng hung hon cho thay gia tr va tam quan trong cua no. Chnh v the, en vi chung ta la, mot cach nao o, no oi cho uy the va yeu cau cua no phai c v ne.

Con van e giai thch cac tac pham co ien th c ban rong them vi y niem "phoi ket cac nhan quan nhan thc" (fusion of horizons).  Viec nhan thc xay ra khong phai khi mnh a vt ra khoi nhan quan rieng cua mnh va t at mnh vao trong tnh canh cua chnh tac gia, nhng, trai lai, nhan thc ung an c, khi biet phoi ket nhan quan rieng cua mnh vi loi nhn cua van ban va cua tac gia.  Viec "phoi ket cac nhan quan" nh the ch hoan tat luc van ban co ien c dien giai the nao e nhn nhan tam anh hng cua no tren cuoc i hien tai cua mnh. [26]

Hoc thuyet chu giai cua Gadamer a c Paul Ricoeur khai trien rong ra va bo sung them qua cong trnh nghien cu nham giai thch ve vai tro cua phep an du va cua cau truc trnh thuat, cung nh qua viec nhan manh en tam quan trong cua s lien ket gia hai the cach giang giai va nhan thc. [27]   Bnh luan ve nh ngha cua Aristot ve phep an du, tc coi o la mot hnh thc noi len tnh cach tng t, [28] Ricoeur a ra y kien noi rang an du khong phai ch n thuan gi vai tro giai thch cho ro hn tnh cach tng t a co san gia cac hnh anh va cac y tng ma thoi; nhng trai lai, t chung, cac an du con lam phat sinh ra mot the cach tng t na.  Nhng y ngha trc o d ong, nhng bay gi lai c em noi ket lai vi nhau.  Va ket qua la "hien tng kch ong ng pha (semantic shock) se tao ra mot y ngha mi.  V the, phep an du co kha nang ren uc nen mot y ngha mi bang cach noi ket lai vi nhau nhng y ngha oi ngc nhau.  i t cach dung phep an du trong cac cau, Ricoeur a ni rong cong trnh phan tch cua mnh e ng dung nhng ket qua thu lm c vao trong cau truc trnh thuat cua toan bo van ban.  Xay dng tnh tiet cho mot tac pham trnh thuat la noi ket vao trong mot cot truyen, nhng mau tnh tnh va nhan vat, nhng hoan canh, nhng truyen va nhng bien co khac nhau cua cau chuyen lai vi nhau, e t o lam nay sinh len mot y ngha mi.

Vi viec a phng cach "giai thch" ra ng dung nham bo sung cho phng thc "nhan thc", Paul Ricoeur a thc s bien oi ky thuat nghien cu theo phng phap chu giai cua Gadamer.  Vai tro cua tien nhan thc (pre-understanding) va cua moi lien he song (life-relation) oi vi chu e cua mot van ban, a bat au co c cho ng trong niem quan tam chu giai hng tron vao cong tac "nhan thc".  Thc ra, cung a co nhng phng phap "giai thch", chang han nh la ky thuat phan tch theo phng thc phe bnh lch s, phe bnh xa hoi va phe bnh van chng, va cach rieng oi vi Ricoeur, con co ky thuat phan tch theo c cau luan ve cac cau va cac ban van na. Muon giai thch cho ay u chu e cua ban van, th can phai lu y khong nhng en von lieng tien nhan thc va moi lien he song cua chung ta ma thoi, nhng con ca en nhng cong trnh phan tch theo c cau luan va phan tch hoc na.

Da theo cac hoc thuyet chu giai cua ca Gadamer lan Ricoeur, David Tracy a co khao sat ban chat cac tac pham co ien ton giao va kito giao.  Ngoai ra, Tracy con xac nh cho rang tnh chat chu yeu cua than hoc he thong la chu giai, va e ngh noi rang s mang cua than hoc he thong kito la tm cach dung con ng dien giai ma phuc hoi lai y ngha va chan ly cua cac tac pham co ien kito. [29] Khi giai thch ve quan niem cua mnh lien quan en tnh chat chu giai cua than hoc he thong, Tracy chap nhan quan iem do Gadamer e ra, coi viec nhan thc nh la mot hanh ong thong d vao trong kho tang cua truyen thong.  Tuy the, ong cung van chap nhan nhng oi thay ma Ricoeur  a vao trong hoc thuyet cua Gadamer, va thau dung mot so cac pham tru Ricoeur thng dung en.  The nen, Tracy nhan manh en tam trong yeu cua cac the cach dien giai can c vao cong trnh phan tch theo ky thuat phe bnh lch s, phe bnh van chng va phe bnh xa hoi, coi o nh la nhng the cach bo tuc cho cac the cach giai thch cua viec nhan thc.

Ben kia gii mc Khoa Chu Giai

a tien phat cua tha6`n hoc chu giai a trung vao luc co nhieu khung hoang xay en cho than hoc.  Tnh trang khung hoang nay anh hng khong nhng ti cach kieu nhan thc ve truyen thong va cac tai lieu goc cua than hoc, ma con ca en cach thc cam nhan ve kinh nghiem gia cuoc song moi ngay na.  t khung hoang au tien dnh lu tti y ngha va tam quan trong cua truyen thong.  Tam trong yeu cua ky thuat chu giai cang c e cao, th cang lam cho y ngha, tam quan trong va hieu lc cua truyen thong ton giao cang tr thanh xa vi, m mt kho hieu oi vi hien tai.  Ma he y ngha va uy tn cua cac tai lieu goc ma than hoc rut ra t truyen thong, cang tr thanh xa vi va m mt, th cang can phai giai thch chung e dien giai cho c y ngha va tam trong yeu ma chung ham cha. [30]  Bao lau khoang cach lch s, van hoa va xa hoi gia qua kh va hien tai, c tiep tuc ln dan len, lam cho qua kh cang tr thanh m mt, khong thch hp, va ca nang ne ngot ngat na, th bay lau viec giai thch cac truyen thong qua kh cang tr nen can thiet, bc thiet hn.

t khung hoang th hai lien quan en kinh nghiem cac nhan.  He kinh nghiem cac nhan cang khong con c coi la trong sang na, th cang can phai nh en ky thuat chu giai e cat ngha kinh nghiem.  Ngay nay, ngi ta thng dung en nhng loi dien giai theo tam ly, xa hoi va chu ngha hanh vi e giai thch y hng va hanh ong cua con ngi. Y ngha cua hanh ong con ngi khong con c n thuan ong nhat hoa vi loi ng s giai thch hanh ong cua mnh.  Ket qua la co mot tnh trang xung ot xay ra gia cac cach giai thch ve hanh ong con ngi: co ngi th can c vao y hng co y thc, vao nhng ly do ro rang va nhng li t giai thch, e giai thch; co ngi khac lai giai thch da theo nhng ong c khong suy ngh, nhng nhan to xa hoi va nhng ly do giau kn.  Khi ma y ngha cua kinh nghiem va cua hanh ong khong con c coi la ro rang va hien nhien na, th viec giai thch kinh nghiem va hanh ong tat phai tr thanh mot viec lam can thiet.

Hai t khung hoang tren ay m ng a ti mot t th ba: t khung hoang cua chnh khoa chu giai; t khung hoang nay xuat hien khi cong tac giai thch to ra la khong co u kha nang e mot mnh giai quyet cho xong nhng kho khan cua hai t khung hoang kia. [31]   t khung hoang nay xay en khong phai ch luc ngi ta ang tranh cai ve van e ng dung y nghia va tam quan trong cua truyen thong ma thoi, nhng noi cho ung hn, la khi chnh truyen thong cung a gap phai nhng thach o anh thang vao tan goc re, hoac khi nhng xung ot ngay trong truyen thong a khong the i en cho giang hoa c.  Ngoai ra, khi chnh kinh nghiem b thach thc, th t khung hoang th ba nay a xay en.  Va khi ay, khong con la van e giai thch kinh nghiem na, ma nghi ng tnh cach thch hp cua chnh kinh nghiem.  Theo Greffe, th: "Khung hoang chu giai khong phai ch la cuoc khung hoang ve ngon t, nhng con la cuoc khung hoang ca ve t tng na." [32]  V the, can phai vt qua ben kia gii mc cua viec giai thch e at cho c en cong trnh xay dng lai ca truyen thong lan kinh nghiem.  Van e at ra ay khong phai n thuan la van e y nghia cua truyen thong hay kinh nghiem, ma la van e chan ly cua chung.  ung nh c Hong Y Giuse Ratzinger nhan nh, "Than hoc kito khong ch cham cham chu chu giai thch cac van ban: s mang chu yeu cua than hoc kito la tm hieu ve chnh chan ly." [33]

CAC PHNG THC NGHIEN CU THAN HOC THEO KY THUAT PHAN TCH

Mot so phng thc nghien cu khac lai mang tnh chat phan tch, tc la co kha nang cung ng cho nha nghien cu than hoc nhng ky thuat phan tch, hau chu tat tot s mang cua mnh va lam cho cac van e than hoc c them sang to.  Hai phng thc nghien cu a ac biet gay c anh hng ln oi vi nen than hoc cong giao hien ai: o la cac phng phap don no lc e nhan manh hoac la (1) en tam quan trong cua mot loai sieu hoc thuyet (metatheory), nhat la cua khoa hoc luan ng dung cho moi th phng phap noi chung va cach rieng cho phng phap than hoc, hoac la (2) en vai tro quan yeu (thng c hieu ngam) cua cac kieu mau (models) va mo bieu (paradigms) trong lanh vc suy t than hoc.

Sieu hoc thuyet: Phng phap trong Than hoc

Bernard Lonergan a co cong ong gop ang ke cho nen than hoc cong giao hien ai qua cong trnh chng giai cho thay rang oi vi than hoc, viec giai quyet mot so van e can ban do khoa hoc luan at ra, la mot viec lam quan trong: Ban chat cua tri thc con ngi la g? au la nhng le loi tien hanh can ban trong cach nhan thc cua con ngi? Lonergan cho rang nhng cau hoi nh the th can ban hn nhieu so vi nhng thac mac tranh cai ve nhng van e chuyen biet trong than hoc, va hn na chung con lam nen c s vng chac e giai quyet cac van e ac biet ve phng dien phng phap hoc; bi v, mac du thng c hieu ngam ch khong c khao sat cho ro rang, th nhng gia nh khoa hoc luan cung gi vai tro nh oat ve nhng giai ap chung cuc cho cac van e tranh cai trong than hoc, va cho viec giai quyet cac van e phng phap hoc.  The nen, can phai khao sat cac gia nh ay cho ky, v le chung ong gi mot vai tro can ban khong nhng oi vi than hoc, ma con oi vi bat c bo mon hoc hoi va hnh thc nghien cu nao.

Lonergan a gia cong khao sat ve cac van e cung nh cac gia nh can ban noi tren ay roi e ra mot "sieu hoc thuyet" co tnh cach khoa hoc luan, ve the cach nhan thc cua con ngi, va a chng giai ve tnh chat thch ang cua hoc thuyet ay oi vi phng phap nghien cu than hoc.  La mot sieu hoc thuyet, cong trnh phan tch cua Lonergan ve the cach nhan thc cua con ngi, oi phai tien en mot mc cao trong no lc van dung oc suy luan tru tng. Tac gia a phan tch cac cau truc va the cach tien hanh kia cua hanh ong nhan thc, tc la nhng g thng c gia thiet nh la tat yeu, ch khong c chng giai ro rang qua cac cuoc thao luan trong thc te.  Qua cong trnh khao luan nhng van e trong sieu hoc thuyet khoa hoc luan co lien quan en cac van e tranh luan trong than hoc, Lonergan a t o noi ket cac van e cu the cua than hoc lai vi nhng vu tranh cai co ien, trng ky va co tnh cach tong quat hn, trong triet hoc (chang han nh cac vu luan chien cua thuyet duy tam chong lai thuyet duy vat, cua thuyet chu quan chong lai thuyet khach quan).  Tac gia thng chieu theo cac giai ap cua triet hoc ma giai quyet cac van e than hoc; va chng minh cho thay rang lap trng triet hoc ma ong chu trng nham bien ho cho u the cua chu thuyet duy thc phe bnh (critical realism) chong lai ca thuyet duy tam lan thuyet duy vat, ong gi mot vai tro quan trong khong nhng oi vi khoa hoc luan, ma con oi vi cac van e cu the trong than hoc na . [34]

Lonergan phat trien quan niem cua mnh ve hoc thuyet duy thc phe bnh e giai ngha giai oan chuyen bien i t cach hieu co ien cua Aristt ve phng phap khoa hoc, bc qua phng phap kinh nghiem hien ai. [35] Tac gia xac nh la ket qua cua bat c phng phap khoa hoc nao cung eu m rong e san sang on nhan nhng bc hieu chnh va duyet xet ke tiep.  Do o, tac gia nhan manh noi rang tnh chat khach quan ch thc th khac han vi loai hoc thuyet duy thc ngay ngo,  coi tri thc ch giong nh la mot cai nhn thoang qua. Tri thc khach quan khong phai n thuan la s thu nhan thu ong; no oi phai co mot bo oc thc te vi kha nang phe bnh, qua o, chu quan tnh cua ca ngi nhan thc na cung chu ong xep at the gii y ngha.  Hoat ong ay cua chu quan tnh con ngi can phai co mot cho ng trong phng phap nghien cu than hoc. Loi trnh bay than hoc theo Lonergan a thc hien cong tac nay bang hai cach sau ay : (1) giai thch ve cau truc cua hanh ong nhan thc ni con ngi; va (2) phat trien moi quan he gia the gii va chu quan tnh va cau truc cua tri thc .

Cau truc cua tri thc va phng phap than hoc

Lonergan ly luan rang tri thc con ngi bao ham mot cau truc bon chieu kch: kinh nghiem ve cac d kien, nhan thc ve cac y ngha cac d kien, lng nh gia tr cua chung, va cuoi cung la quyet nh anh gia. V o la mo mau tri thc cua moi hanh ong nhan thc, the nen, cau truc cua no lien quan ti moi bo mon nghien cu va moi nganh khoa hoc, ch khong phai ch vi triet hoc hoac than hoc ma thoi.  e minh hoa moi quan he va cau truc tri thc co oi vi phng phap than hoc, Lonergan a e xuat y kien cho rang, phng phap va s mang cua than hoc cang luc cang am re sau hn vao trong cau truc c ban bat bien cua y thc con ngi, vi a di ong i t kinh nhiem cho en nhan thc, roi en tham nh, va cuoi cung la quyet nh.

Cau truc ay giup cho viec phan loai cac tac vu khac nhau cua than hoc theo nhieu mon chuyen biet khac nhau vi chc nang rieng, co c mot can ban vng chac.  Lonergan bac nhp cau quan he noi ket cau truc bon chieu kch cua tri thc lai vi cac oi tng y hng cu the va vi cac chuyen mon rieng biet trong than hoc, e t o, phan chia s mang than hoc thanh hai giai oan.  Giai oan au tng ng vi cau truc bon chieu kch cua tri thc, va gom ham cong cuoc nghien cu (thu thap d kien), cong trnh giai thch (nhan thc ve y ngha cua cac d kien),viec oc lai tien trnh lch s (tham nh gia tr cua cac ieu khang nh va cac d kien lien he), va no lc bien chng (lam cho sang to cac van e va quyet nh hoac chon mot lap trng).  Bon the cach tren ay mang tnh chat tien nghiem, v chung lam nen cau truc cho toan bo tri thc con ngi.  Moi ngi (tn hu, ngi vo tin, khoa hoc gia, triet gia) eu phai theo cung mot le loi tien hanh c ban ay cua tri thc.  Lonergan con bien luan them rang gia du co ai muon phe bnh chong lai mo mau tri thc phac hoa tren ay, th trong thc te, ngi o cung buoc phai lam chng ve gia tr cua chnh mo mau ay, bi v ca nhan o tat phai thu thap d kien, giai thch cung lng nh gia tr cua chung, va cuoi cung i en mot quyet nh.

Hoan cai va phng phap than hoc

 Giai oan hai cua s mang than hoc khi au mot khi quyet nh a co va lap trng a chon.  Gan chat vi the gii cuoc song chu quan cua nha than hoc, giai oan nay gom ham nhng yeu to nen tang, than hoc tn ly va than hoc he thong, cung nh nhng yeu to truyen thong. Trong giai oan nay, le loi tien hanh cua cau truc tri thc cung c ng dung, nhng la theo mot quy trnh ao ngc lai: i t mot quyet nh lam nen tang (than hoc c ban), e hng ti bc tham nh ve chan ly (than hoc tn ly), nham tien en cho nhan thc (than hoc he thong), va cuoi cung at en mc cam nhan chan ly bang kinh nghiem (phng thc truyen thong - than hoc thc hanh) .

Chu chot oi vi giai oan hai cua s mang than hoc la vai tro c ban cua thai o quyet nh, tc la thai o c bieu at bang pham tru hoan cai. [36] Khai niem hoan cai neu bat tam trong yeu cua y hng ngi hieu biet va tin nhan co oi vi tac vu kien tao than hoc.  Hn na, cach thc Lonergan cu the giai thch ve hoan cai, con ni tam ng dung cua y niem ay t pham vi sieu hoc thuyet, rong ra cho en lanh vc than hoc tien nghiem.  Bang mot loi phan tch ve khai niem hoan cai.  Lonergan a a chu y cua ngi hieu biet va tin nhan, hoa nhap vao trong phng phap nghien cu than hoc.  Tac gia quang giai ve chu y cua hoan cai theo ba y ngha : tri thc, luan ly va ton giao.  Hoan cai tri thc bao ham lap trng nhat quyet cho rang hieu biet khong phai ch la hanh ong xem cho ky cac d kien, hoac la hnh thanh cho c nhng khai niem.  Hoan cai tri thc oi hoi phai co mot quyet nh dt khoat va mot sc don thuc manh me e t sieu thang (self-transcendence) len tren ban than cua chnh mnh, bi v viec hieu biet oi hoi phai co mot quy trnh hoat ong phc tap cua t duy con ngi hang khong ngng non nong i tm cho ra nhng bang chng ay u, nhng ly le vng chac va nhng quan iem toan dien.

Hoan cai luan ly lam cho tieu ch cua cac quyet nh luan ly thay oi i: tieu ch khong con la s thoa man s thch nhng la gia tr. [37] Hoan cai luan ly oi hoi phai co lap trng dt khoat ng ve pha nhng g xet thay la tot va co gia tr thc s, ngay ca khi gia tr va s thch co sung khac nhau.  Nhng hanh ong tham nh ve gia tr nh the tiem cha s hieu biet ve thc tai va mot y hng ng ap thch ang oi vi gia tr.  Do o, hoan cai tri thc gi vai tro lam ieu kien tien quyet cho hoan cai luan ly. Hn na, v gia tr c at len tren s thch cho nen hoan cai luan ly la mot hnh thc cua no lc t sieu thang, va co the co lien he vi a phat trien ve mat tri thc, luan ly cung nh tnh cam. [38]

Het  nh hoan cai tri thc va hoan cai luan ly, hoan cai ton giao cung oi hoi phai co no lc t sieu thang.  Tuy nhien, hoan cai ton giao vt qua ben kia gii mc cua hoan cai tri thc va hoan cai luan ly; bi v hoan cai ton giao c cau thanh do chnh no lc t sieu thang dnh lien ngay trong a tien bc ve vi y ngha va gia tr toi hau.  Lonergan mieu ta cuoc hoan cai ton giao vi nhng ac net nh sau:  "b chop bi moi ban khoan toi hau", "phai long the gii ben kia", va "moi tnh khong bien gii". [39] Hoan cai ton giao khong phai n thuan la chuyen co ao, nhng chnh la cuoc ieu chnh toan dien cho hng i cua ca cuoc song mot ca nhan.

Tong hp cua Lonergan cung khong tranh khoi c nhng nhan nh phe bnh, ch trch t nhieu pha a ra.  So sanh lonergan vi Schleiermacher, Langdon Gilkey ly luan noi rang vai tro c ban gan cho hoan cai se lam cho chieu kch cong cong cua cac tac vu than hoc suy suyen i, va m ng a phng phap cua Lonergan en cho b coi la nang mui hoc thuyet chu quan. [40]   Du co neu len mot van nan ln, th li phe bnh buoc toi tren ay cung cho thay la a anh gia nhe chieu kch chu giai trong tat ca moi th kinh nghiem. Nh la ieu kien tien quyet, viec nhan thc oi phai co mot moi quan he song oi vi chu e can c nhan thc. Do o, tri thc ve ton giao va viec giai thch cac van ban ton giao cung oi phai co nh la ieu kien tien quyet, mot moi quan he song oi vi noi dung cua ban van.  Cong tac giai thch ve ton giao can en mot ky thuat chu giai hai chieu kch; bi v cong tac chu giai nay can phai can c khong nhng theo mo mau hoac the loai ma ngi giai thch dung e thau hieu hay cat ngha mot bien co, mot hanh ong, hoac mot bieu tng ton giao ma thoi, nhng con theo ca y ngha ma chnh cac tac nhan ton giao gan cho bien co, hanh ong hoac bieu tng ay na. [41] Cung vi hoc thuyet duy thc phe bnh, khai niem do Lonergan e ra ve hoan cai, a co lam sao cho tnh trang cang thang gia cac khuynh hng khach quan va chu quan, gi c the quan bnh hau tranh cho khoi b ch trch.

Them vao o,van nan sau ay a c neu len, o la: th hoi co quyen coi nhe cac tac gia va cac lap trng co tam c ln trong lch s triet hoc (nh Hume, Kant, hoac Hegel chang han) hay la trong lch s than hoc ( chang han nh Tectulliano, Origene, hoac Athanasio), bien tat ca tr thanh nhng pham tru khoa hoc luan tru tng nh la chu ngha kinh nghiem duy vat, chu ngha ly tng, hoac la chu ngha duy thc phe bnh, nh Lonergan thng lam hay khong?  Du sao th Lonergan cung a co nhng ong gop ang ke cho cong trnh suy t than hoc.  Nh biet ng dung sieu hoc thuyet tri thc ma ong e xng, vao cac vu tranh cai trong lch s ve nhng van e chuyen biet cua than hoc, tac gia a co cong neu bat tam trong yeu cua khoa hoc luan oi vi cac quan iem cu the trong than hoc.

Mo mau va Phan tch theo Pham tru

T "mo mau" (models)  a tr thanh thong dung trong nhieu bo mon khoa hoc khac nhau.  Trong cac nganh khoa hoc t nhien, mo mau la cach thc mieu ta mot hien tng lam sao e minh hoa cho c mot so cac ac tnh c ban cua hien tng o, va nhng moi tng lien gia cac ac tnh nay. [42] Mo mau neu bat mot so ac net, va bo ri ca ac net khac.  Qua cach thc ay, mo mau mang lai mot kieu phoi tr cac khai niem, giup phac hoa ra c mot loi nhn ac trng ve mot hien tng, xuat phat t mot phoi canh ca biet nao o.  Mot loi dung t tng t cung a c ng dung mot cach pho thong vao trong than hoc he thong, vi muc tieu lam cho ban chat phoi canh (Perspectival nature) cua cac pham tru than hoc sang to them len.

Avery Dulles va mo mau Than hoc

Avery Dulles, mot trong nhng than hoc gia cong giao co anh hng hang au tai Bac My, a thng xuyen dung en cac mo mau vao viec nghien cu than hoc, chang han nh la e tm hieu ve cac chu e nh Giao Hoi, mac khai, phong trao ai ket, Kito hoc va the gii cong giao.  Cong trnh ng dung mo mau e tm hieu ve Giao Hoi la cong trnh gay c anh hng ln nhat. [43]   Trong cuon  Mo mau ve Giao Hoi, khong nhng bien luan noi rang cach hieu khac nhau ve Giao Hoi la nhan to gay ra tnh trang khac biet gia cac the loai Giao hoi hoc khac nhau, Dulles con cho rang s d co tnh trang khac biet nh the, mot phan la v nhieu mo mau khac nhau a c dung e mieu ta Giao Hoi.  Tac gia coi cac hnh thc bieu trng: to chc co the che, cong ong thong hiep nhiem mau, b tch, s gia tien ho va ke toi t, nh la nhng mo mau thnh hanh nhat trong than hoc hien ai.  Trong cac tac pham ra mat t lau sau o, Dulles con neu them mot hnh thc bieu trng bao ham khac, o la mo mau can c vao t cach lam mon o . [44]

Tam quan trong cua phng phap ng dung tren ay (va phan nao, cung la ly do giai thch v sao cuon sach cua Dulles a gay c anh hng ln) nam cho no giup cho cac tn o cong giao thuoc nhieu khuynh hng khac nhau co c ieu kien e hieu nhau va quyet tam trao oi vi nhau trong tinh than hp tac xay dng.  Cac than hoc gia va cac tha tac vien thuoc khuynh hng nhn Giao Hoi theo mo mau mot to chc co the che, a khong hieu c lap trng cua cac than hoc gia va cac tha tac vien co cach nhn Giao Hoi theo mo mau communio (cong ong hiep thong).  Viec y thc co nhieu mo mau khac nhau,  a a ti ket luan tat yeu nay la moi quan iem eu co mot ng loi rieng e hieu biet ve mot chieu kch quan yeu va khong the thieu c cua Giao Hoi, va cung luc lai cho thay rang cac quan iem khac cung co kha nang tng ng nh the.  Trong thi hau cong ong Vaticano II, khi ma cac the loai Giao hoi hoc khac nhau thng va cham lan nhau tren ly thuyet cung nh trong thc te, th phng thc nghien cu tren ay a ong gop rat nhieu e giup cho cac lap trng khac nhau biet nhn nhan va tiep nhan lan nhau.

Phan tch Pham tru

Trong thien khao cu ve mac khai, Avery Dulles a e ra cac mo mau sau ay e dung vao viec giai thch cac the loai than hoc khac nhau ve mac khai: giao ly, lch s, kinh nghiem noi tam, cuoc hien dien bien chng, va tam nhan thc mi . [45]   Tac gia quan niem rang hieu mac khai theo the cach bieu tng la phng thc hay nhat e co the phoi ket cac quan iem cua het thay moi mo ma6au tren ay.  Ngoai ra, cac mo mau ve mac khai ay cung thng gay anh hng sau am cung gi vai trio lam nen mong oi vi cac quan niem khac nhau ve phng phap than hoc cung nh ve phong trao ai ket. 

Ngoai viec phan tch cac khoa hoc luan va mo mau mac nhien, than hoc hien ai con cham chu dung nhieu loai pham tru khac nhau vao trong than hoc.  V the, ngi ta cang ngay cang lu y nhieu hn ti tam trong yeu va nhng hnh thai a dang cua cac pham tru nong cot trong cac nhan nh than hoc. Bo Giao ly c tin a e cap en van e nay trong van kien Mysterium Ecclesiae ban ve tnh chat lch s cua giao ly kito. [46] Van kien xac nh ve mot so iem nh sau:(1) ban chat khiem toan cua moi hnh thc khang nh giao ly, (2) boi canh tnh cua cac khang nh trong giao ly, v o la nhng cau tra li cho nhng van e ca biet, khong co tnh cach pho quat, (3) ban sac ngon ng cua cac giao thuyet, va (4) viec phan biet gia mot ben la chan ly c xac nh qua mot cong thc giao ly, va ben kia la cac pham tru cung vu tru quan triet hoc dung e dien at chan ly ay.

c a ra nham tra li cho viec Hans Kung ch trch ac an bat kha ngo cua Giao Hoang, [47] van kien Mysterium Ecclesiae xac minh rang cho du co chu ieu kien han che khat khe cua hoan canh lch s va ngon ng, th cac cong thc dien at giao ly cung van minh nh bieu at chan ly.  Van kien khang nh rang khong phai ch ai khai noi len phan nao chan ly, cac cong thc giao ly con thc s bieu at mot kha canh nhat nh nao o cua chan ly, cho du la trong mot cach thc nhat thiet phai rieng biet va le thuoc vao cac ieu kien lch s, boi canh cung ngon ng.  Viec xac nh ban chat lch s cua cac cach the dien at va cac pham tru c dung ti trong phng thc dien at giao ly, a khi day mot thach o ln cho cong tac nhan thc va anh gia khong nhng noi dung cua cac cong thc dien at giao ly, ma ca cac pham tru chu yeu cua phng phap than hoc na.

Cac giao ly co truyen thng c trnh bay theo loi dung cac pham tru vay mn t cac trng phai triet hoc.  Ngay nay, tnh cach thch ang cua cac pham tru ay, ang gap phai nhieu thach o va ang b at lai van e.  Trong hai t "bien the" (transubstantiation) va "bien ngha" (transignification), t nao la thch ang nhat e dien at nhng g Giao Hoi tin ve b tch Thanh The? Co phai cong thc "hai ban tnh va mot ngoi v" la cong thc thch ang e bieu at nhng g tn ieu kito hoc co truyen hang khang nh hay khong co phai la thc tai bieu at qua khai niem "ket hiep ban the /ngoi hiep" (hypostatic union) se c khai niem "ong nhat hoa trong ngoi v" (hypostatic identification) dien at tot hn hay khong?  e bieu at hieu lc cua cac b tch, th nen dung cac pham tru ve quan he nhan qua theo Aristot, hay la cac pham tru rut ra t hien tng hoc ve s gap g ?  The nen, cac than hoc gia hien ang ban cai soi noi e xem cac pham tru hay hnh thc bieu at mi cua thi nay to ra thch hp hn hay thua cac pham tru va hnh thc co truyen.  Cuoc tranh luan triet hoc lam mong cho cuoc tranh cai than hoc, cung phc tap khong kem.  Con viec phan biet gia noi dung va pham tru hay cong thc khai niem (conceptual scheme) th b ch trch cung nhieu, ma c ung ho cung khong kem. [48]  

Cong tac phan tch cac pham tru c ban ong gi mot vai quan trong trong viec thau hieu khong nhng cac hnh thc bieu at giao ly khong thoi, ma con ca phng phap than hoc na.  Khong the hieu c nhieu ve than hoc hien ai, neu khong biet lu y ti nhng bien oi trong cach thc chon va dung cac pham tru c ban.  Nhng dau vet ma anh hng cua Martin Heidegger e lai trong than hoc cong giao la mot th du cu the ve nhng bien oi ay.  Trong cuon Being and Time (Hu the va Thi gian), Heidegger a cho rang cac pham tru ve hu the tng c dung en ke t thi triet hoc Hy Lap cho en Descartes, eu khong thch hp e dien ta thi gian tnh, lch s tnh va s kien tnh cua cuoc con ngi hien hu trong the gii.  V the, ong a tm cach e thay the cac pham tru kia bang nhng pham tru rut ra t viec phan tch cuoc hien hu cua con ngi ngay t trong tnh chat thi gian cua chnh cuoc hien hu ay. [49] Cac pham tru ma ong goi la hien sinh the (existentials) ay se tieu bieu cho nhng g la ac thu trong cuoc hien hu cua con ngi: hu-the-hng-ve-s-chet, niem au lo, kha nang t ky minh giai. [50] Khong the hieu c nhieu va cho chnh xac ve he thong than hoc cua Rahner, neu khong biet e y en iem nay la ngoai cac pham tru kinh vien co ien ra, than hoc gia nay cung a dung en cac pham tru hien sinh the cua Heidegger a chuyen dch t tam ly hoc ve kha nang en no lc phan tch chu y e rot cuc ket luan rang nhng ngon t va nhng quan he c ban trong than hoc se khong con thuoc lanh vc sieu hnh hoc nh trong thi trung co na, nhng la thuoc lanh vc tam ly hoc. [51] Cung con co the trng dan them nhieu th du tng t, rut ra hoac la t he thong than hoc cua cac nha than hoc khac (nh Edward Schillebeeckx, Piet Schoonenberg, Charles Curran), hay la t cac trao lu than hoc (chang han nh than hoc giai phong). V le o, than hoc hien ai can phai gia cong dung phng phap sieu hoc thuyet ma nghien cu ve cac pham tru c ban c dung vao trong viec ao sau va trnh bay than hoc.

Ben kia gii mc Sieu hoc thuyet

Tm hieu ve bat c mot the loai sieu hoc thuyet nao, du o la nhng thuyet ve khoa hoc luan hay la nhng cach phan tch mo mau va pham tru, th cung can phai luon luon lu y en iem quan trong nay la t chung, cac hnh thc sieu hoc thuyet ay khong phai la nhng phng phap nghien cu than hoc, mac cho chung co hu ch en may oi vi than hoc va phng phap than hoc.  o la iem a c Karl Rahner neu bat len va nhan manh en.  Ban ve khai niem do Lonergan a ra, lien quan en cac nganh chuyen biet theo chc nang trong than hoc, Rahner a hoai nghi khong biet phng phap cua Lonergan co u coi la mot phng phap thc s than hoc hay khong. [52]

Theo Rahner, th Lonergan a khong khai trien mot phng phap, cho bang mo ta ve cac cau truc tri thc co d phan vao trong bat c hanh ong tm kiem nao cua con ngi, ke t thai o do dam nhn tri e tm cho ra au moi cua nguon goc vu tru, cho en viec tm oc mot cuon sach day lam bep e biet cach thc lam banh.  Chnh au e cuon sach cua Lonergan a cho thay ro ve s kien o, bi le ta e cua tac pham khong phai la phng phap than hoc, ma la Phng Phap trong Than hoc (Method in Theology). [53] Tng t nh the, viec a cac mo mau dung vao trong than hoc cung a b phe bnh ch trch.  Cac mo mau giup cho co c nhng cong cu phan tch hu ch; tuy nhien, cong tac suy t than hoc oi phai tien xa hn, vt qua ben kia gii mc cua viec ch biet cham cham chu chu phan tch li va hai, u va khuyet cua tng mo mau mot; cong tac ay oi phai tch cc ra tay thc hien s mang xay dng va he thong hoa cua than hoc. Trong chieu hng ay, ng loi trnh bay sau ay, ng loi dung en phng phap tng quan lien i, se m ra mot vien canh bao quat hn cho phng phap than hoc.

PHNG PHAP TNG QUAN LIEN I

Phng phap tng quan lien i (method of correlation) khi xuat hoi the ky 19, va khi xuat trong t the chuyen biet la mot phng phap than hoc. Trong the ky 20, phng phap a c on nhan rong rai trong gii than hoc gia; c the, cach rieng la nh anh hng cua Paul Tillich.  Di mot dang thai bien cai, phng phap tng quan lien i a c nhieu than hoc gia cong giao tieng tam trong dung. Phac thao lai cach thc Paul Tillich s dung phng phap tng quan lien i, se giup co c mot cai nhn ve qua trnh trien phat cua phng phap nay trong nen than hoc cong giao hien ai.

Qua trnh trien phat Phan ng hoi the ky mi chn oi vi Schleiermacher.

Phng phap lien quan tng oi bat nguon t chu hng than hoc trung gian (Vermittlungs-theologie) cua nen than hoc Tin lanh c hoi gia the ky 19. [54] Trao lu than hoc nay a tm cach lam trung gian dung hoa gia truyen thong lay kinh thanh lam khi iem cho than hoc mot ben, va ben kia la chu trng cua Schleiermacher chon kinh nghiem ton giao lam khi iem. Trao lu nay chu trng dung phng phap tng quan lien i lam phng the noi ket gia khoa hoc va c tin, gia kinh thanh va ly tr.

Quan niem cua Paul Tillich ve Tng quan Lien i.

Paul Tillich khai trien phng phap tng quan lien i theo mot cach hieu rieng ve tng quan lien i. [55]   Co the co ba loai tng quan lien i nh sau: loai thong ke, nh trong tng quan gia cac d kien; loai luan ly, nh trong quan he tuy thuoc lan nhau gia cac khai niem (v du: toan bo va tng phan); va loai thc s, nh trong quan he tuy thuoc lan nhau gia cac s vat va cac bien co. Ba loai tng quan nay cung co mat trong than hoc.  Tng quan oi chieu thong ke gia cac bieu tng ton giao va nhng g chung bieu trng, lam nen noi dung cua van e nhan thc ton giao. Tng quan luan ly gia cac khai niem ve than thieng va cac khai niem ve nhan the, ong gi vai tro xac nh y nghia cho ngon t dung e dien at ve Thien Chua va the gii.  Va moi tng quan tuy thuoc lan nhau thc s gia cac s vat va cac bien co, hien hien len trong tng quan lien i gia cu canh toi hau cua mnh va cai mnh nham en cach chung quyet.  Loai tng quan oi chieu th ba nay la loai ac thu cua moi quan he gia thc tai than thieng va thc tai nhan the trong kinh nghiem ton giao.  Tng quan oi chieu nay trong quan he than thieng-nhan the, bieu hien mot moi tng quan lien i thc s tren bnh dien hu the cung nh thc tai, gia nhng g la than thieng va nhng g la nhan the.

Tillich nh ngha va ap dung phng phap tng quan lien i theo nhieu cach thc khac nhau. Ong a xay dng phng phap tng quan lien i theo cach kieu at tng quan lien i gia nghi van va giai ap, cung nh gia hnh thc va noi dung. Lien quan en cach kieu th nhat, tac gia a viet rang: Than hoc at len nhng cau hoi tiem ngu trong cuoc song con ngi, va theo s hng dan cua cac cau hoi ay, than hoc a ra nhng giai ap tiem an trong s viec Thien Chua t bieu hien mnh ra. [56]  Viec ap dung phng phap tng quan lien i cua Tillich vao trong thc te th het sc la phc tap, bi v tac gia dung khai niem tng quan lien i e dien at khong nhng moi tng quan gia nghi van va giai ap ma thoi, nhng con e dien ta ca hnh thc va noi dung cua kinh nghiem ma con ngi co ve tnh chat gii han cua mnh cung nh ve tnh cach tng trng cua cac bieu tng con ngi phai dung en trong lanh vc ton giao na. [57] Tillich phan tch ve ly tr, hu the, hien hu va lch s, vi chu y neu bat mot van e c ban co the c at trong tng quan lien i vi cac bieu tng cua mac khai: Thien Chua, c Kito, Than kh, va nc Thien Chua.

 Tng quan Lien i trong Than hoc Cong giao Hien ai

Ngay nay, nhieu than hoc gia cong giao ngh rang phng phap tng quan lien i la phng phap hung hon nhat e noi len s mang cua than hoc.  Nh Hans Kung a co dp nhan nh, hien nay gia cac than hoc gia, ang co mot moi nhat tr rong rai cho rang than hoc trong mot the lng cc, va hai cc nay phai c at vao trong tng quan lien i vi nhau.  Tuy vay, cung co nhieu khac biet ln trong cach hieu ve hai cc noi tren, cung nh trong cach thc noi ket chung vao trong tng quan lien i vi nhau. Ch can phac hoa s ve bon trng hp ac biet sau ay cua phng phap khong thoi, th cung a minh hoa tam u ve nhng net ln trong cac iem tng ong va d biet nh va mi noi ti. Bon trng hp o la: Chu hng tng quan lien i phe bnh va cac nguyen tac cau truc cua Edward Schillebeeckx; cach kieu Hans Kung dung phng thc oi chieu phe bnh e bac cau noi ket gia c Kito lch s vi hien tai; tng quan lien i vi nguyen tac ngon s do Rosemary Radford Ruether chu trng; va hnh thai tng quan lien i phe bnh ho tng do David Tracy chu xng.

Tng quan Lien i Phe bnh va cac Nguyen tac Cau truc: Schillebeeckx.

Schillebeeckx quan niem tng quan lien i nh la mot moi tng quan lien i gia hai coi nguon cua than hoc ... mot ben la truyen thong cac kinh nghiem kito, va ben kia la kinh nghiem trong cuoc song hien tai. [58] Cach hieu nh the ve tng quan lien i khac han vi loi quan niem cua Paul Tillich.  Tillich phan biet gia phng the trung gian vi coi nguon cua mac khai, e i en cho xac quyet rang kinh nghiem la mot th phng the moi gii, ch khong phai la mot loai coi nguon cua mac khai. Ngc lai Schillebeeckx th cho rang tng quan lien i bac cau quan he gia hai coi nguon-c goi la hai cc- cua than hoc: kinh nghiem trong truyen thong va kinh nghiem trong cuoc song hom nay. Tac gia nhan manh en vai tro cua tng quan lien i phe bnh va oi luc, cua ca viec oi chieu phe bnh gia hai 'coi nguon' na. [59] Schillebeeckx a co dp mieu ta ro hn ve hai cc ay cua than hoc.

Trong khi phan tch truyen thong kinh nghiem kito (cc mot), Schillebeeckx quan niem rang cho du co ham cha nhieu dang the than hoc khac nhau, th cac van ban Tan c van gi mot thong nhat tiem an la mot kinh nghiem c ban ve n cu o Thien Chua ban qua c Giesu. Chnh kinh nghiem c ban ay a c dien giai theo nhieu cach khac nhau; nhng no van la nh nhau, [60] Kinh nghiem ay thanh hnh t bon nguyen tac cau thanh sau ay: Niem tin vao y Thien Chua muon cho moi ngi c cu o ( nguyen tac than hoc-nhan chung hoc); niem tin vao s kien c Kito la khi iem cua viec Thien Chua t bieu hien chnh mnh ra mot cach dt khoat (trung gian cua c Kito); niem tin y thc rang thien tnh s ma Thien Chua pho dien trong c Giesu, van hang tiep dien qua s iep va cuoc song cua Giao Hoi (trung gian cua Giao Hoi); va niem tin xac nhan rang lch s cu o khong the nao at ti mc hoan thanh vien man ngay tai di the nay c (chieu kch canh chung).

Trong khi phan tch kinh nghiem cuoc song hom nay (cc hai), Schillebeeckx nhan nh rang cc hai nay c tieu bieu qua hai nhan to trai ngc nhau: a hng m ay hy vong nhn ve vien anh tng lai, va thc trang trc dien vi kho au qua o cung bat cong vo ngha.  Ca nhan chu ngha vu li cua Tay phng tan thi la ly do va la nguyen nhan chnh gay nen tnh trang mau thuan ay.  Thc trang ca nhan chu ngha nay lam cho hy vong vao tng lai, nhng cung mang lai nhng kho au va bat cong.  anh rang t o la gia tr can ban trong kinh nghiem cuoc song con ngi, nhng thc te la mot khi a b ca nhan chu ngha vu li au oc, va i ket be ket lu vi khoa hoc ky thuat, th rat thng khi, t do ay tr thanh cong cu lam toi cho long tham khong ay cua t li ca nhan.

Schillebeeckx cho rang can phai thiet at mot moi tng quan lien i phe bnh gia cau chuyen ve c Giesu va nhng con ngi ngay nay ch biet song vu li.  Cau chuyen ay nhac nh va mi goi moi ngi hoan cai. Viec nhac nh mi goi thay long oi da ay chnh la tieu ch ma tng quan lien i phe bnh nham ti. V the, oi vi Schillebeeckx, tng quan lien i trc het mang y ngha ch ve coc oi chieu vi cuoc i c Giesu la nhan to co kha nang lam nay sinh nen bien co hoan cai. Lam c ban cho quan niem cua Schillebeeckx ve phng phap tng quan lien i la viec phan biet gia cac khai niem: s nhat thi, s cuc dien, va s cau truc.  S nhat thi la lch s ghi lai s kien cac bien co en roi i, xay ra hang ngay. S cuc dien th toa rong ra hn va bao trum nhng tru truc van hoa dai rong trong lch s loai ngi. Con s cau truc th khong oi thay, ng lam tru cot cho s nhat thi va s cuc dien dien bien, chuyen hoa chung quanh. [61] Muc tieu ma tng quan lien i phe bnh nham ti, la tm hieu hau xac nh cho chac chan ve tnh chat ong nhat trong cau truc cua kinh nghiem kito c bieu at qua nhieu pham tru khac nhau tuy cuc dien tng thi ai, chang han nh trong thi ai Palestin hoac trong thi ai Hy lap.  Tm hieu hau xac nh ve tnh chat ong nhat cua cau chuyen Kito giao tac ong c en kinh nghiem kito ngay nay, va nh o, co the giup cho lch s ve cong trnh cu o c Kito a thc hien, tr thanh cho moi ngi hom nay, mot li tha thiet mi goi on nhan n cu o, mot li mi goi co sc oi au vi kinh nghiem hien ai, cung nh co sc a ra nhng nhan nh phe bnh hau sa oi nhng thai o, quan niem ca nhan chu ngha va khat vong chiem hu ang thao tung gia thi ai ngay nay.

oi chieu Phe bnh va c Giesu Sinh tien: Kung. 

Chon t ng oi chieu phe bnh thay cho tng quan lien i phe bnh, Hans Kung a muon khai trien phng phap tng quan lien i ra cho rong hn, e lam thanh mot phng phap oi chieu phe bnh gia c Giesu sinh tien va canh huong hien tai. [62] Kung thay t tng quan lien i bang t oi chieu, roi thay v noi hai coi nguon, th lai noi hai cc, va mo ta ve hai cc nay trong mot cach thc khac han vi Schillebeeckx.

Than hoc co s mang khi day mot cuoc oi chieu gia c Giesu sinh tien va canh huong hien tai. Cc au tien la chnh c Kito sinh tien, ch khong phai la bieu tng Kinh Thanh hay la c Kito cua c tin.  Du trong cac tac pham than hoc viet ve sau, Kung a sa oi lap trng cua mnh lai, e bao gom vao trong cc th nhat nay, ca truyen thong kito na, th ong cung van ac biet nhan manh en c Kito luc sinh thi tai the. c Giesu tai the  -c Giesu thu ban au nh a c biet qua cuoc nghien cu phe bnh lch s-  la chuan tac va la tieu ch cua c tin Kito. Theo Kung, th cuoc nghien cu phe bnh lch s ve c Giesu co the giup cho nhan ra rang c Kito cua c tin ma chung ta tin nhan, la chnh con ngi Giesu thanh Nadaret ch khong phai la ai khac, hoac gia khong phai la ai ca. [63] Viec nghien cu phe bnh lch s cung giup cho tranh c khoi mat cong xay dng hoac chay theo nhng hnh anh va quan niem sai lech ve c Kito cua c tin.  Cong trnh nghien cu ay se a ng dan loi en gap g vi c Giesu cua lch s, tc la vi ang lam quy tac va lam tieu ch cho c Kito cua c tin.

Trong cach oi chieu phe bnh cc th nhat vi cc th hai, Kung cung khong ong y vi loi Schillebeeckx mieu ta ve cc th hai, tc la ve kinh nghiem thi nay. Kung khong quan niem giong nh Schillebeeckx ve tan ai.  Thc ra, theo Kung, ca nhan chu ngha vu li cha phai la nhng g noi len ban chat ac trng cua tan ai, cung cha phai la nhng g mang kho au qua o en cho thi ai nay.  Nhng chnh tnh trang che o quan lieu tran ngap va thc trang thieu t do ca nhan mi ung la nhng g a ghi am nhng dau ac thu len tren thi tan ai.

Tng quan Lien i va Nguyen tac Ngon s: Ruether

Rosemary Radford Ruether a da theo nhan quan than hoc n quyen va ng loi nhan manh en nguyen tac ngon s ma khai trien phng phap tng quan lien i.  Khac han vi Hans Kung, ba khong gii thieu phng phap tng quan lien i nh la mot phng phap c s nhat tr chung tan ong, v ba cho rang phng phap ay co the c ap dung theo nhieu cach khac nhau. [64] Ba hieu nguyen tac ngon s nh la mot nguyen tac phe bnh nang ong. [65] o la mot nguyen tac, bi le no khong quy chieu ve mot truyen thong hay mot bo van ban ac biet nao ca; noi cho ung hn, o la mot nguyen tac co mat trong nhieu truyen thong va van ban khac nhau. La mot nguyen tac nang ong, nguyen tac ay khong tu ong lai trong mot hnh thai nhat nh, ngc lai, no bien hoa va chu oi thay.  La mot nguyen tac phe bnh, nguyen tac ay len an cac hnh thc ap bc e nen, nh che o phan biet giai cap xa hoi, tnh trang phan biet chung toc va phan biet gii tnh. Theo li ba, Xuat phat t cac nguyen tac Kinh Thanh, than hoc n quyen ch co the tr thanh hien thc khi nao cac nguyen tac ngon s c thau hieu mot cach tron ven hn, tc la nhng nguyen tac oi phai loai bo moi hnh thc e cao mot nhom ngi trong xa hoi coi ho nh la hnh anh va nh la tac vien cua Thien Chua ma chong lai cac nhom khac, cung nh moi cach thc da vao Thien Chua e bien bach cho nhng hanh ong thong tr va ap bc e nen trong xa hoi. [66]

Tng quan Lien i Phe bnh Ho tng: Tracy

David Tracy neu y kien cho rang theo mot nh ngha c rong rai chap nhan th s mang cua than hoc la thiet at nhng moi tng quan lien i phe bnh ho tng gia mot cach thc giai thch truyen thong kito va mot cach thc giai thch ve canh huong hien tai; o ch la mot phng phap tng quan lien i a c tu chnh lai, v thc ra, no khong la g khac ngoai phng sach da vao tnh trang t y thc ve chnh mnh mot cach chu giai, ma minh giai va sa oi than hoc co ien. [67] S d phai t y thc ve chnh mnh mot cach chu giai, la v phng sach ay khong vien vao uy the cua thc tai cuoc song kito cho bang cua cac moi tng quan lien i phe bnh ho tng gia hai phan bo cua cong tac giai thch. [68]

Trong tien trnh hnh thanh quan niem cua mnh ve phng phap tng quan lien i, David Tracy a lay lai va quang dien rong ra cach thc Schubert Ogden e xuat nham phan biet hai loai tieu ch khac nhau: tieu ch e phan nh tnh chat xng hp oi vi truyen thong, va tieu ch e nhan nh tnh chat kha tri oi vi hoan canh. [69] Lay lai cach phan biet gia chan ly va y ngha, Ogden ly luan rang tieu ch ve tnh chat xng hp, rut ra t chng t cua cac tong o, gi vai tro xac nh y ngha hay ac tnh cua Kito giao; con tieu ch ve tnh chat kha tri th giup cho viec nhan nh ve chan ly cua c tin kito.

Trong khi trnh bay quan niem cua mnh ve phng phap tng quan lien i, Tracy a phan biet va xac nh ky lng ve tnh chat cua cac tieu ch kia.  Hieu theo t the la nhng tieu ch than hoc, cac tieu ch ve tnh chat xng hp tat yeu a ti ket luan nay la xet theo than hoc, th viec can c vao tnh chat xng hp moi quan iem co oi vi chng t cac tong o c bieu at mot cach chuan tac trong Kinh Thanh, ma tham nh tng quan iem mot trong than hoc, la viec lam het sc chu yeu. [70]

Cach giai thch nh the ve tnh chat xng hp khac han vi cach thc Ruether nhan manh en nguyen tac ngon s, hoac la vi thai o lu tam ac biet cua Kung oi vi than the c Kito sinh tien.  Khac han vi Kung, Tracy cho rang oi vi than hoc, khong phai la 'c Kito lch s' ma la c Kito a c xac chng va tuyen xng qua c tin mi thc s quan trong. [71]

Con tieu ch ve tnh chat kha tri th gii thieu hoac bac cau noi ket s iep vi canh huong hien tai. Cac tieu ch nay noi len tnh chat thch ang tng xng oi vi kinh nghiem va hoan canh thi nay.  ieu quan trong la cac tieu ch ve tnh chat thch ang tng xng oi vi con ngi ngay nay phai c quan niem lam sao e chung co the giup cho bien co thi co co c anh hng m rong va ay sc bien oi cai hoa oi vi hoan canh thi nay.  Tracy a nh vao cac tng quan bien chng gia bien co va phan ng, gia cac hnh thc giai thch va bnh giai, cung nh  nh vao mot mo mau am thoai, e ban rong them ra ve ban chat cua tng quan lien i.  Tng quan lien i gia hai cc a c hieu nh la mot cuoc am thoai, nh la mot loai tng quan lien i phe bnh. Tng quan lien i ay co the thay oi tuy theo no la tng quan lien i do bi tnh chat ong nhat, do bi tnh cach tng ong-trong-d biet, hoac la ngay ca do bi tnh cach oi sanh gia hai phia.72 [72]

S viec co nhieu khuynh hng than hoc khac nhau eu cung noi rang phng phap than hoc ma mnh chu trng, la mot phng phap tng quan lien i, cho thay phng phap ay a c chap nhan va dung ti rong rai en mc nao.  Phng phap tng quan lien i co nhieu iem giong, nhng cung co nhieu iem khac vi cac quan niem co ien ve than hoc.  Mot mat, no tha nhan tham quyen va gia tr cua truyen thong ton giao a c chnh xac giai thch cua ngay trc, va tm cach ap dung truyen thong ay vao trong hien tai. Nhng mat khac, no lai cho rang quang phan cach gia s iep cua qua kh va tnh canh trong hien tai th cach biet ln rong hn la nh than hoc co ien a tng. The nen, tng quan lien i khong phai n thuan la mot s kien, nhng noi cho ung hn, o la ket qua va la tieu ch cua s mang than hoc.  Trong bc ng xay dng hng ve tieu ch ay, phng phap tng quan lien i thng c phoi hp vi cac phng phap khac; chang han nh la vi: loi phan tch tien nghiem ve chieu kch ton giao cua chu the con ngi, hoac la vi phng thc dung ng loi chu giai ma phuc hoi tam trong yeu cua cac truyen thong ton giao.

Ben kia gii mc Phng phap Tng quan Lien i

Lien quan en phng phap tng quan lien i, co the neu len ay mot so nhng ieu kien han che ang lu y.  Tuy nhien, cung can noi ngay rang xet v co nhieu cach quan niem khac nhau ve tng quan lien i, nen khong phai tat ca moi hnh thai tng quan lien i eu cung chu nhng ieu kien gii han giong nhau. Th nhat, phng phap tng quan lien i thng da vao cho phan biet gia ngon ng va thc tai bieu at qua ngon ng.  Phan biet nh the la coi nhe tnh chat lch s cua ngon ng va van hoa, bi v tien hanh theo cach thc ay la nhan rang nhng the cach bieu at van hoa, nhng pham tru, va ngon ng co the thay oi, trong khi o, thc tai bieu at trong va qua cac pham tru ay th van khong thay oi, va nh vay, co the bat gap c qua tng quan lien i gia qua kh va hien tai.

Th hai, phng phap tng quan lien i nhan manh en tnh chat lien tuc va ong nhat; nhng lai khong lu y cho u en bien oi va bat ong nhat trong qua trnh tien phat cua c tin va than hoc. Tr phi a bien truyen thong tr thanh mot cong thc tru tng, tat yeu phai dung en cac pham tru co sc vt qua ben kia gii mc cua tng quan lien i va co kha nang bao ham tron ca qua trnh tien phat, s kien bien hoa cung nh hien tng oi thay, th mi hieu c truyen thong.

Th ba, phng phap tng quan lien i khong lu y cho u en nhu cau can phai co mot thai o phe bnh oi vi truyen thong.  Phe bnh ay khong ch n thuan la chuyen phe bnh nhan nh ve cac the cach bieu at truyen thong, vi muc ch lam cho kinh nghiem c ban hay la nhng li khang nh cua truyen thong co c hoi ma chieu sang rang ngi ra hn. Nhng ung hn, o la hnh thc phe bnh co tnh cach xem xet lai, nham thang vao chnh nhng kinh nghiem va nhng li khang nh ay.

CAC HNH THAI THAN HOC GIAI PHONG

T than hoc giai phong khong ch rieng ve mot phng phap than hoc oc nhat, nhng la ch ve nhieu trao lu than hoc khac nhau.  Theo ngha hep, than hoc giai phong la mot trao lu than hoc hien ai, khi phat va thnh hanh tai Chau My Latinh.  Theo nh ngha hep ay, th than hoc giai phong la mot phong trao at trong tam vao viec nghien cu ve cac nguyen nhan chnh tr, kinh te va xa hoi a gay nen canh chenh lech bat cong trong xa hoi ngay tai trong cac nc Chau My Latinh, cung nh gia Chau My Latinh va Bac My.  Chu anh hng sau am cua cach thc Johann B. Metz trnh bay ve mot the dang than hoc chnh tr. [73] Cac than hoc gia Chau My Latinh a e xuat mot loi giai thch oc ao ve xa hoi hien ai, ve canh chung cung nh ve a chuyen bien chnh tr.  Thay v a phat trien, ho lay hanh ong giai phong lam pham tru chu yeu cho ca than hoc lan kinh te va chnh tr.  Ngay ca trong pham vi nh ngha hep nay, th cung van con co rat nhieu lap trng va phng phap than hoc khac biet nhau gia cac than hoc gia giai phong Chau My Latinh.

Theo ngha rong, t than hoc gia giai phong ch ve bat c trao lu than hoc nao phe bnh chong lai mot hnh thc ap bc e nen nao o, va coi hanh ong giai phong nh la mot phan trong toan bo s mang cua than hoc.  Than hoc n quyen, cac trao lu than hoc My goc Phi, va mot so dang thai than hoc Chau A eu la nhng kieu mau chnh cua than hoc giai phong.  Danh xng than hoc giai phong cung c cac tho dan Chau My, cac nhom sac toc cung nh cac nhom thieu so dung en e bieu at mot cach thc suy t than hoc.  Du cho co nhng khac biet ln gia cac than hoc gia giai phong, th cung co nhng ac net chung tieu bieu cho cac phng phap than hoc ho dung.  Nhng ac net ay cho phep e cap en mot phng phap chung gom bon yeu to tieu chuan sau ay:

Khi iem

Bat c hnh thai than hoc giai phong nao cung lay viec phan tch hoan canh xa hoi va chnh tr cu the lam khi iem cho no lc suy t than hoc cua mnh.  Phan tch nh the la e tm cach phi tran nhng hnh thc ap bc, boc lot, tha hoa va ky th.  Khuynh hng chung cua moi hnh thai than hoc giai phong la hieu kinh nghiem nh la khong hn khong kem, mot kinh nghiem ve tnh trang chu ap bc e nen.  Chang han, tnh trang cach biet lo lieu tri vc gia cac tang lp giau ngheo trong cung mot nc, cung nh gia cac nc tan tien va cac nc ang tren a phat trien, a lam cho cac nha than hoc giai phong Chau My Latinh i en cho coi cac lien he le thuoc va boc lot gia cac quoc gia khac nhau, nh la nhng nhan to ong vai tro chu chot trong viec gay nen thc trang chenh lech kia. [74] Than hoc giai phong My goc Phi th don chu tam chu yeu vao tnh trang ky th chong lai ngi Chau Phi va ngi Chau My goc Phi trong qua trnh lch s Kito giao.  Con cac than hoc gia n quyen th lai at trong tam vao ni s kien ap bc n gii trong cac xa hoi to chc theo che o phu quyen. 

Phe bnh chong Y thc he

Net tng ong th hai nam cho tm hieu truyen thong theo nhan quan kinh nghiem cua nhng ngi b ap bc. Cach tm hieu nh the tat phai can en mot loi chu giai ng vc (hermeneutics of suspicion) hay mot lap trng bai y thc he.  Muc tieu la co vach tran va len an nhng meo mo sai lech do y thc he gay ra trong truyen thong, v chnh nhng meo mo sai lech ay la nguyen nhan lam phat sinh tnh trang ap bc.  Mc o va quang o ng vc thay oi cao thap, rong hep tuy quan iem rieng cua moi than hoc gia.  Rat thng khi, cac nha than hoc giai phong Chau My Latinh lam nh cho rang ch co truyen thong tiep hau thi Tan c hay la tiep hau thi c Giesu lch s mi ranh ranh cho thay nhng meo mo sai lech do y thc he gay ra.  V the, co nhieu than hoc gia len tieng ch trch loi hieu truyen thong theo cach giai thch nh the, mong tm ve lai c vi y hng nguyen thuy cua Tan c hay cua c Giesu lch s, la ngi hang cong khai ng han ve pha cua nhng ngi ngheo. [75]

Loi phan tch hoan canh theo than hoc giai phong n quyen th lai cang phc tap hn. [76] Trc het, truyen thong Tan c th co nhieu va khac nhau; the nen, neu co nhng truyen thong va van ban b tham nhiem bi nhng t tng va thai o ky th n gii, th cung co nhng truyen thong neu ro quyen bnh ang gia nam va n trong c Kito.  Mot v du ve trng hp th nhat: nhng tuc le trong gia nh ma Tan c ghi lai, cho thay tnh trang n gii b at di quyen cua nam gii, va ong thi cung cho thay la a khuon rap theo che o phu quyen kieu Aristot. Chung hnh thanh t s viec don no lc e tra li cho nhng d luan buoc toi noi rang Kito giao theo chu trng phan gia nh va chong lai trat t xa hoi Roma.  V Kito giao chap nhan cho phu n va cac ngi no le c theo Kito giao ma khong can co phep cua au hay chu (paterfamilias), nen ngi Roma coi va ch trch Kito giao la phan gia nh va chu trng ao lon trat t xa hoi.  Li buoc toi nay co the giup cho thay c phan nao ly do tai sao cac tuc le gia nh kia lai co mat trong Tan c. [77] Do o, trong mot so hnh thai than hoc n quyen, lap trng phe bnh bai y thc he khong nhng c ap dung cho cach thc giai thch Tan c khong thoi, ma con cho ca chnh Tan c na. 

Cac the loai than hoc giai phong khac nhau cung khong quan niem giong nhau ve lap trng phe bnh bai y thc he.  Mot so than hoc gia giai phong chu trng noi ket kinh nghiem ve ap bc trong hien tai vi nhng chuan mau khac vi chuan mau noi tren ay, chang han nh la vi c Giesu lch s hay vi nguyen tac ngon s.  V the, viec phe bnh bai y thc he cung ch da vao moi tng quan lien i gia hai chuan mau oi chieu gia hien tai va qua kh.  Mot so than hoc gia giai phong khac th cho rang tng quan lien i kieu ay thng c neu len ma lai khong c xac nh cho u ve mat lch s.  Theo ho, kinh nghiem ve ap bc a tr thanh mot chuan mau e da theo o ma tm hieu Kinh Thanh.  Can phai da theo anh sang cua nhng kinh nghiem ve ap bc ma tm hieu lai khong phai la truyen thong ve dien giai Tan c khong thoi, ma con ca chnh Tan c na.  The nen, kinh nghiem ve ap bc thanh nen tieu ch phe bnh; kinh nghiem ay c dung lam tieu ch c ban e anh gia cac tieu ch khac. 

Tri thc b No dch hoa

 Ngoai viec phe bnh chong lai nhng meo mo lech lac do y thc he gay nen trong cac truyen thong van hoa qua kh va hien tai, than hoc giai phong con chu trng rang viec phuc hoi tri thc a b no dch hoa la mot phan trong s mang xay dng cua than hoc. Nh vay, s mang cua than hoc bao ham cong tac phuc hoi nhng bieu tng ton giao a b lang quen, nhng le loi thc hanh trong Giao Hoi a b bo ri, cung nh nhng kinh nghiem a b coi re va khong con c biet ti.  Lch s thng ghi lai ky c va quan iem cua nhng ngi thang, va thng bop cam tieng noi va quan iem cua nhng nan nhan thua. Do o, tac vu cua than hoc giai phong la mang ra anh sang va phuc hoi tri thc cung kinh nghiem cua nhng ai a b bop cam, khong c quyen noi len tieng noi cua mnh.  Than hoc giai phong khai quat len t qua kh khong phai la nhng mau goc, nhng la nhng mau au cua cong cuoc giai phong.

Lay Hanh ong Xa hoi lam Tieu ch

oi vi than hoc giai phong, hanh ong xa hoi (praxis) khong ch n thuan la mot muc tieu, ma con la mot tieu ch cua phng phap than hoc na. [78] T Hy Lap praxis a c cac nha than hoc giai phong co y s dung e nhan manh en mot loi phan biet quan trong bat nguon t Aristot.  Trong cuon ao c hoc cho Nikomakho, Aristot a phan biet "thc hanh" (poiesis) c coi nh la mot nang khieu ky thuat e lam ra mot vat g o, vi "hanh ong" (praxis) c coi nh la mot le loi song.  Nh the, ngha th nhat ch ve ky nang (tekhne), con ngha th hai th ch ve mot ng hng can ban cua cuoc song. [79] Lay lai khai niem ve hanh ong cua Aristot, cac ly thuyet gia phe bnh va cac ngi Maxt xet lai a tm cach neu bat s viec Mac nhan manh en "hanh ong" (praxis) xa hoi va chnh tr, nhng lai co tranh s viec Mac thu hep khai niem ay vao cac chieu kch kinh te va ky thuat. [80]  Cac nha than hoc giai phong a i theo ng hng ay, khi ho xac nh rang hanh ong kia chnh la muc tieu va la tieu ch cua cac dang thai than hoc ho chu trng; bi v xac nh nh the co ngha la muc tieu ho nham ti, khong phai la mot hnh thc to chc trong o ky thuat ong vai tro chu yeu, hay la mot c cau xa hoi hoac la mot ke hoach kinh te nao o, nhng la mot le loi song.  T hanh ong xac nh ro la cong cuoc giai phong ma ho theo uoi, th rong ln hn mot cuoc phat trien ky thuat hay kinh te n thuan: o la mot cuoc giai phong bao gom tron ca cac chieu kch ton giao, xa hoi, chnh tr lan ca nhan.

Kinh nghiem va hanh ong trong cuoc song hien tai khong nhng em lai cho cac nha than hoc giai phong nhng nguon lieu e da vao o ma phe bnh truyen thong cung hoan canh ngay nay, nhng con cung cap ca nhng tieu ch e nh gia cac khoan giao thuyet than hoc na.  ong thi, a hanh ong en tnh trang c giai phong thc s cung la tieu ch ma than hoc giai phong nham ti.  The th, hanh ong chnh la mat ben kia cua ky thuat chu giai ng vc, cua lap trng bai y thc he.  Viec than hoc giai phong nhan manh en hanh ong nh the, co the c coi nh la mot hnh thai cua he luan thuyet trong than hoc.  Tuy nhien, v ong gi mot vai chu chot, nen khai niem hanh ong cung con can phai c minh giai cho ay u va cho ro rang hn.  Thng thng can c vao hanh ong co ngha la can c vao nhng kinh nghiem trc tiep ve ap bc. Nhng, cung luc, viec can c vao hanh ong coi o nh la nguon lieu chuan tac va nh la tieu ch tien lng, lai khi day mot van e khac: van e lng nh gia tr cua chnh hanh ong.  Neu gia tr cua hanh ong con can phai c phan nh, th tat cung con can phai tra li cho nhng cau hoi chnh ang nh sau: Cai g se lam khuon kho giai thch cho viec lng nh hanh ong ? Nhng gia thuyet hau canh nao se phai c dung ti trong khi tham xet va phan nh gia tr nh the ? Hanh ong se c giai thch va phan nh nh the nao ? Nhng cau hoi tng t nh the se a dan ti mot phng phap than hoc trong o hanh ong c coi nh la mot nhan to ong gi mot vai chu yeu ve mat than hoc va chnh tr, nhng ma phng phap ay co nhat thiet phai rong rai hn khong .

 

Nguyen oan Tan va Nguyen The Minh  phien dch

 


[1] ay la Phan 2 - T trang 35 en trang 65 - Trong ba phan cua chng 1, cuon I cua bo sach hai cuon , ta e : Systematic Theology , Roman Catholic Perspective , do mot nhom tac gia bien soan, va nha xuat ban Fortress Press, Chicago, an hanh nam 1991 . Francis Schussler Fiorenza la tac gia cua chng 1 mang tieu e : Systematic Theology: Task and Method. Xin on oc phan 3 trong so ke tiep cua HTTH.

[2] Cho ay u hn, xin xem Donald J. Dietrich , The Goethezeit and the metamorphosis of Catholic Theology in the Age of Idealism (Frankfurt: Peter D Lang, 1979).

[3] Lien quan en a phat trien lch s cua than hoc c ban, xin cem Francis Schussler Firenza, Foundational Theology : Jesus and the Church ( new York: Crossroad, 1984)

[4] Cac cong trnh nghien cu cua Grabmann, Gloriex, Chenu, etc. . . la mot vai th du ve a trien phat ay .

[5] Karl Rahner, Spirit and the world ( NewYork: Herder and Herder, 1968) . Xin xem phan dan nhap do F. Fiorenza bien soan, Karl Rahner and the Kantian Problematic, XIX-XL.

[6] Bernard Lonergan, Verbum: Word and idea in Aquinas, ed. David Burrell ( Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press,1967) ; va Grace and Freedom: Operative Grace in the Thought of St. Thomas Aquinas, ed. J.P. Burn ( New York: Herder and Herder, 1971) 1224-30.

[7] Edward schillebeekx, De sacramentele heilseconomie: Theologischee bezining op St. Thomas'sacranentenleer in het licht van de traditie en van de hedendaagse ( Antwerp: Nelissen, 1952). Nhng ket qua co tnh cach he thong cua cong trnh khao luan nay c tom ket lai trong cuon Christ,The Sacrament of Encounter with God ( New York: Sheed and Ward, 1963).

[8] Henri de Bouillar, Conversion et grace ( Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1944

[9] Henri de Lubac, the Mystery of Salvation ( New York: Herder and Herder,1967): va Augustianism and Modern Theology ( New York; Herder and Herder, 1969)

[10] Johann Baptist Metz, Christliche Anthhropozentrik (Munich: Koesel Verlag, 1962). Xin cung xem Max Seckler, Instinkt und Glaubenswille (Mainz: Matthias - Gruenewald, 1961), va Das Heil in der Geschichte:Geschichts- theologisches Denken bei Thomas von Aquin ( Munich: Koesel, 1964) ; Otto H. Pesh, Theologie der Rechtfertigung bei Martin Luther und Thomas von Aquin ( Mainz : Matthias - Gruenewald, 1967), va Thomas von Aquin: Grenze und Groesse mittelalterlicher Theologie ( Mainz: Matthias - Gruenewald, 1988)

[11] Otto Muck, The Transcendental Metho (new York: Crossroa, 1968); va Harol Holz, Tranzenentalphilosophie un Metaphysik (mainz: Matthias-Gruenewal, 1966).

[12] Karl Rahner, "Transcenental Theology," Trong Sacramentum Muni ( New York :Herer an Herer, 1970),6:287

[13] Joseph Marechal, Le point de depart de la metaphysique, 5 cuon, tai ban lan th ba ( Brussels: Museum Lessianum, 1944-49)

[14] Karl Rahner, "Reflection on Methology in Theolog" trong bo Theological Investigations ( New York: Crossroa, 1974), II:94

[15] Xin lay lai ay cach trnh bay ma Rahner a quang dien qua tac pham mang ta e Fouations of Christian Faith ( New York: Seabury, 1978), 208-12.

[16] Rahner, Founation, 210.

[17] M.D. Chenu, "Le plan de loa Somme theologique de S. Thomas", Revue Thomiste 45 (939): 93-107. Muon tm oc ve mot loi suy dien trnh bay ve cong trnh cu o theo mo mau lch s, xin xem Ulrich Horst, "Ueber die Frage einer heilsoekonomischen Theologie bei Thomas von Aquin", Muenchener theologische Zeitschift 12 (961): 97-111.

[18] Xin xem bai viet cua Hans Urs von Balthasar phe bnh ve lap trng cua Karl Rahner : Cordula oder der Ernstfall, 3d ed. (Einsiedeln: Johannes Verlag, 1987).  Ve lap trng cua chnh Von Balthasar, xin oc Medard Kehl and Werner Loeser, eds. , The Von Balthasar reader (New York: Crossroad,1982). Ve he thong do Balthasar a ra, xin oc cac bo sach sau ay: The Glory of the Lord: A Theological Aesthetics, 3 vol. ( San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1983-1988); Theodramatik (Einsiedelm: Johannes Verlag, 1973-1983); va Theologik (Einsiedelm: Johannes Verlag,1958)

[19] Walter Kasper, Jesus the Christ (New York: Paulist, 1976 ); The God of Jesus Christ (New York: Crossroad, 1984), va Theology an Church (New York: Crossroad, 1989) 

[20] Francis Schussler Fiorenza, "Theology: Transcendental or Hermeneutical," Horizons 16 (1989):329-41 .

[21] e co mot cai nhn ve qua trnh lch s cua khoa nay, xin oc Richard Palmer, Hermeneutics (Evanston, III: Northwestern University Press, 1969), va Kurt Mueller - Vollmer, ed., The Hermeneutic Reader ( New York: Crossroad, 1985).

[22] Xin xem bai Jurgen Habernas phe bnh chu ngha duy tam trong lanh vc chu giai, ni tap Justus George Lawler va Francis Fiorenza, eds., Cultural Hermeneutics (toan bo noi dung cua Continuum [1979] :7).

[23] o la cach bien luan co tam c do George Lindbeck a ra trong cuon : The nature of Doctrine (Philadelphia: Westminter Press, 1985). Trong cach phe bnh ve Karl Rahner va David Tracy, tac gia to ra co khuynh hng anh gia thap tam mc suy t ve vai tro cua phng thc chu giai ma cac than hoc gia nay a a ra trong he thong than hoc cua ho.

[24] Charles Taylor, Human Agency and Language: Philosophical Papers ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985) I: 213-92

[25] Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method, rev. ed.(New York: Crossroa, 1989), 290

[26] Gadamer, Truth and Method, 369-79. Lien quan en hoc thuyet cua Gadamer, xin oc them Joel C. Weishammer, Gadamer's Hermeneutics: A Reading of Truth and Method (New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 1986), va Georgia Warnke, Gadamer: Hermeneutics, Tradition and Reason (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1987).

[27] Paul Ricoeur, The Rule of Metaphor: Multidisciplinary Studies of Creation of Meaning and Language (Toronto: University of Toronto, 1977); va Time and Narrative, 3 cuon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984, 1985, 1988). Cung xin xem bo tieu luan quan trong cua Ricoeur: Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences, ed. Josiah Thompson (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

[28] Text of  Footnote

[29] David Tracy, The Analogical Imagination (New York: Crossroad, 1981), 99-153; Idem, Plurality and Ambiguity : Hermeneutics, Religion, Hope (New York: Harper and R, 1987) .

[30]   Xin xem Odo Marquard, Farewell to Matters of Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989) 

[31] Claude Geffre, The Risk of Interpretation: On Being Faithful to the Christian Tradition in a Non-Christian Age (New York: Paulist Press, 1987), 21-45 .

[32] Claude Geffre, The Risk of Interpretation, 32

[33] Joseph Ratzinger, Church, Ecumenism and Politics (New York: Crossroad, 1988), 154.

[34] Chang han , Lonergan lam cho thay ro la cac van e lien quan en hanh ong nhan thc cua con ngi, eu co lien he thch ang vi kito hoc.  Xin xem Bernard Lonergan, The Way to Nicea: The Dialectical Development of Trinitarian Theology ( Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976).  Loi trnh bay ve Than Hoc Tam V a c phac thao theo quan he oi vi khoa hoc luan: Tertullian, Origene va Athanasio tuan t ai dien cho ba phng thc nghien cu theo ba khuynh hng duy vat, duy tam va duy thc phe bnh.

[35]   Xin xem Bernard Lonergan, Insight ( New York: Philosophical Library, 1957) va A Third Collection (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1985). Xin oc bai bnh luan trong cuon Vernon Gregson, The Desires of the Human Heart (New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1989)

[36] Lien quan en y niem hoan cai theo cach hieu cua lonergan, xin oc Walter Conn, Conscience: Development and self-transcendence (Birmingham, Ala.:Religious Education Press, 1981): Stephen Happel va James J. Walter, Conversion and Discipleship: A Christian Foundation for Ethics and Doctrine (philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986).

[37] Lonergan, Method in Theory (new York :Crossroad, 1972), 241

[38] Xin xem Walter Conn, Christian Conversion: A Development Interpretation of Autonomy and Surrender (mahwah, N.J.: Paulist, 1986), viet ve moi lien he ma cach hieu theo Lonergan ve hoan cai co oi vi cac hoc thuyet ban en a phat trien ve mat luan ly va tam ly.

[39] Ibid, 241-44

[40] Xin xem Langdon Gilkey, "Empirical Science and Theological Knowing" trong cuon sach cua Philip McShane, ed., Foundation of Theology (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1972), 76 -101. Cung trong cuon sach ay, David Tracy a a ra mot nhan nh phe bnh tng t : Xin xem "Lonergan's Foundation Theology: An interpretation and a Critique," 197-222 .

[41] Xin xem cuon Foundation Theology cua toi, tt 285-301, trnh bay cac luan chng ve chieu kch chu giai cua kinh nghiem, va ve ky thuat chu giai hai chieu kch .

[42] Max W. Wartofsky, Model: Representation and the Scientific Understanding (Boston: D. Reidel Company, 1979).

[43] Avery Dulles, Models of the Church (New York: Doubleday, 1974) .

[44] Avery Dulles, A Church to Believe In (New York, Crossroad, 1982)

[45] Avery Dulles, Models of Revelation (New York: Doubleday, 1983)

[46] Xin xem bai bnh luan cua Ratzinger, trong Principles,228 - 30

[47] Hans Kung, Infallible: An Inquiry (New York: Doubleday,1971).

[48] Xin xem thien tieu luan cua Donal Davidson, ta e "On the Very Iea of a Conceptual Scheme" nay a xuat ban trong cuon Inquiries into Truth an Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon, 1984) 183-98.

[49] Heidegger, Being an Time, 41-49

[50] Ibid., phan 2, 227-487.

[51] Lonergan, Method in Theology, 343.

[52] oi vi toi, hoc thuyet ve phng phap than hoc cua Lonergan xem ra qua tong quat, en o co the c coi la tong quat thch dung cho bat c bo mon khoa hoc nao, va do o, khong phai la phng phap hoc cua than hoc theo ung ngha cua no, nhng ch la mot the loai phng phap hoc tong quat ve khoa hoc noi chung, c minh hoa vi nhng th du lay t trong than hoc. (Karl Rahner, Some Critical on Functional Specialties in Theology, trong cuon McShane, ed, Foundation of Theology, 194).

[53] Lonergan, Method in Theology.

[54] Ragnar Holte, Die Vermittlungstheologie (Uppsala : University of uppsala, 1965).

[55] Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951-63), 1:59-66; Xin cung xem 2:14. John P. Clayton, The Concept of Correlation: Paul Tillich and the Possibility of a Mediating Theology (New York: De Gruyters, 1980) 

[56] Text of Footnote

[57] Xin xem Langdon Gilkey, Gilkey on Tillich (New York: Crossroad, 1990), 56-78, 171-96.

[58] Edward Schillebeeck, Interim Report on the Books Jesus and Christ (New York: Crossroad, 1981), 50.

[59] Ibid., 51

[60] Ibid.

[61] Xin xem Edward Schillebeeckx, Jesus: An Experiment in Christology ( New York; Crossroad, 1979)

[62] Ve phng phap nay, xin xem Leonard Swidler, ed., Concensus in Theology? A Dialogue with Hans Kung and Edward Schillebeeckx ( Philadelphia: Westminter Press, 1980), cong vi nhng cong vi nhng thay oi bo tuc a ra trong cuon Hans Kung, Theology for the Millennium (New York: Doubleday, 1988).

[63] Kung, Theology for the Third Mellennium, 111. 

[64] Rosemary Radford Ruether,Is New Christian Concensus Posibile ? trong Swidler, ed., Consensus in Theology? 33-39.

[65] Xin xem Rosemary Radford Ruether, Feminist Interpretation of the Method of Correlation, trong Letty M. Russell,ed., Feminist Interpretation of the bible (Philadelphia: Westminter Press, 1985),111-24.

[66] Rosemary Radford Ruether, Sexism and God-Talk: Toward a Feminist Theology (Boston: Beacon,1983)

[67] Robert M. Grant cung vI David Tracy, A short History of the Interpretation of the Bible, rev. ed.,(Philadelphia: Fortress Press,1984),170

[68] David Tracy, What Is Fundamental Theology? Journal of Religion 54(1974): 13-34. c tu chnh lai, bai viet nay a tr thanh chng 2 cua cuon Blessed Rage for Order (New York: Crossroad, 1975).

[69] Xin xem Schubert Ogden, On Theology (New York: Happer and Row, 1986),1-22. Ngoai cuon Blessed Rage for Order, xin xem them Tracy, The Analogical Imagination, va Plurality and Ambiguilty.

[70] Grant va Tracy, Short History,175. Tracy y thc la tieu ch kia co the c dung e ap at tnh chat ong nhat va loai bo moi hnh thc phe bnh xuat phat t a phat trien ve sau. The nen, tac gia a got giua e thuyet cua mnh lai cho tinh vi hn: Tieu ch ve tnh chat xng hp chu trong en iem nay la moi dang thai than hoc xuat hien ve sau trong than hoc kito eu co bon phan phai cho thay ro la t goc re mnh khong bat hoa vi chng t kito chu yeu, c bieu at ro trong Kinh Thanh. Theo ngha hep ay, trong t the la chng t chnh goc cua cac tong o ve c Kito, Kinh Thanh la tieu chuan lam tieu chuan, ch khong phai la tieu chuan do chng ta khac nhan nh (norma normans sed not normata)(tr. 176) 

[71] Tracy,The Analogical Imagination, 301-2 so 97. Xin xem Elizabeth A. Johnson, The Theological Relevance of the Historical Jesus: A Debate and a Thesis, The Thomist 48(1984: 1-43

[72] David Tracy, The Uneasy Alliance Reconceived: Catholic Theological Method, Modernity and Postmodernity, Theological Studies 56 (1989): 548-70

[73] Xin xem Johann Baptist Metz, Theology of the World (New York: Crossroad, 1969) 74 Xin xem Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation, rev.ed. (Maryknoll,N.Y.:Orbis Books,1988). Ve moi lien he gia chnh tr va than hoc giai phong, xin xem Francis Fiorenza,Political Theology and Liberation Theology: An Inquiry into Their Fundamental Meaning, trong cuon Thomas McFadden,ed., Liberation, Revolution and Freedom: Theological Perspectives (New York:Seabury,1975),3-29.

[74] Xin xem Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation, rev.ed. (Maryknoll,N.Y.:Orbis Books,1988). Ve moi lien he gia chnh tr va than hoc giai phong, xin xem Francis Fiorenza,Political Theology and Liberation Theology: An Inquiry into Their Fundamental Meaning, trong cuon Thomas McFadden,ed., Liberation, Revolution and Freedom: Theological Perspectives (New York:Seabury,1975),3-29.

[75] Juan Luis Segundo, The Historical Jesus of the Synoptics (Maryknoll,N.Y.:Orbis Books,1985); Jon Sobrino, Jesus in Latin America (Maryknoll, N.Y.:Orbis Books,1987).

[76] Ve lap trng khac biet gia phng thc nghien cu cua Juan Luis Segundo va hoc thuyet phe bnh ve giai phong theo khuynh hng n quyen, xin xem Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza, Bread not Stone (Boston: Beacon Press,1984),43-63

[77] Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza, In Memory of Her (New York:Crossroad, 1983),251-84. Cung xin xem cung mot tac gia, Bread not Stone,65-92

[78] Clodovis Boff, Theology an Praxis (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1987); Rebecca Chopp, The Praxis of Suffering (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1986) .

[79] Aristot, ao c hoc cho Nikomakho 6.2.1139a. 19-20;  6.4.1140a. 1-23;  6.7.b.1141b. 16.

[80] Xin xem ac biet la Jurgen Habermas, Theory and Practice (Boston:Beacon Press, 1973).