Kinh Nghiem va Than Hoc:

Vien Canh Giai Phong Tai Chau A

Peter C. Phan [1]

Phan au cua bai viet nay la phan trnh bay ve phng phap than hoc va nhng t lieu cua nen than hoc giai phong Chau A, ac biet la ve mot so nhng iem nh sau trong nen than hoc ay: nhng nhan nh phe bnh ve nen than hoc Tay phng; thai o dan than vao gia hanh ong xa hoi; le loi phan tch thc trang xa hoi, van hoa cung nh ton giao tai Chau A; va cong trnh liet ke cac thach o cung cac nguon d kien lam t lieu cho nen than hoc giai phong Chau A. Trong phan th hai, thien tieu luan nay se gii thieu va anh gia ve ba cong trnh tieu bieu trong no lc khai trien mot nen than hoc giai phong Chau A, tc la ve cac cong trnh suy t than hoc: cua Tissa Balasuriya ben Sri Lanka, cua Choan-Seng Song ben ai Loan, va Than hoc Minjung (Than hoc Tien dan) ben ai Han. Con phan ba la oan ket cua thien tieu luan, th se a ra mot li nhan nh ve cac tac vu kho khan ma mot nen than hoc giai phong Chau A con phai ra sc ganh vac va gia cong thc hien.

Neu ta e bai viet a cap song oi kinh nghiem vi than hoc , th chnh la e ngam noi len moi lien he gia mot ang la cac goc re quoc gia va chung toc lam nen boi canh trong kinh nghiem cua moi ca nhan, va ang khac la i song ton giao cua moi ngi. Co the noi la moi lien he ay mang tnh chat tat yeu, khong the tranh ne bo qua c, bi v niem tin ton giao nhat thiet phai c the hien ra gia mot cuoc song cu the am re sau vao trong mot nen van hoa a phng nhat nh, cung nh phai c bieu at qua nhng ngon ng cung bieu tng ac thu, va phai c ca mng vi nhng nghi thc rieng biet. Mot nen van hoa - vi tat ca nhng nhan to cau thanh cua no, nh ngon ng, nhng bieu tng va cac nghi thc, - th luon luon i lien gan chat theo loi cong sinh, vi mot khuon mau ac thu ve phng dien chung toc va oi luc con ve ca phng dien quoc gia na. La mot cach thc suy t ve kinh nghiem ton giao, the nen t noi tnh, than hoc kito cung i lien gan chat vi nhng boi canh chung toc va quoc gia lam moi trng cho kinh nghiem ton giao khi xuat va dien tien. Noi cach khac, nhat thiet than hoc phai c canh huong hoa, hoi nhap van hoa, ban x hoa, cung nh phai mang tnh chat a phng va quy chung toc. Mot nen than hoc thieu tnh chat chung toc, la mot ieu nghch ly.

Khong phai bao gi tnh chat quy chung toc ay, - tnh chat cua tat thay moi nen than hoc, - cung a c tha nhan mot cach ro rang, vi tat ca y thc; va neu co c tha nhan phan nao, th Kito giao nang tnh chat Chau Au va nen than hoc kito m sac thai La Hy cung thng c chon e lam mc thc cho cac ni khac trong the gii. Pho quat tnh va quy pham tnh a thng c vien dan ra, ac biet la trong cac hoat ong truyen giao tai cac vung goi la The Gii Th Ba.

Gan ay, cac than hoc gia The Gii Th Ba, cach rieng cac than hoc gia Chau My Latinh, Chau Phi va Chau A, a nhieu lan manh me len tieng phan oi chong lai tnh cach thc dan va e quoc cua the dang van hoa va than hoc kito uon nan theo chu hng t at mnh lam mau [2]   nh the kia. Ngi ta nhan manh noi rang truyen thong than hoc Tay phng (Chau Au va Bac My) la khong g khac ngoai mot loat cac nen than hoc a phng thanh hnh trong dong anh hng cua mot so trao lu va yeu to chnh sau ay: cuoc Cai cach (Tin Lanh), thi ai Anh Sang, cuoc Cach mang ky nghe, cac cuoc Cach mang Phap va Hoa Ky, ky thuat cao o, tnh trang tuc hoa va t ban chu ngha. Cac nha than hoc The Gii Th Ba nhat mc t choi khong chu chuyen/dien dch than hoc Tay phng (du la bang phng phap tng ng linh ong/ dynamic-equivalence method) ra trong ngon ng rieng cua mnh; va ngay ca viec chuyen the hay cai bien nen than hoc ay cho thch ng vi the dang van hoa rieng cua ho, th ho cung t choi khong muon nghe noi ti. S nguyen cua ho la uong nc gieng mnh, (tam ao ta) nh Gustavo Gutierrez a muon noi len qua ta e cuon sach cua ong [3]

Qua vay, nh J.B. Metz a nhan nh, chung ta ang iem cuoi cua thi ai Kito giao lay Chau Au lam tam iem, va Giao hoi Cong giao ang thay hnh oi dang t mot giao hoi oc tam ve mat van hoa (Chau Au va Bac My), e bien thanh mot giao hoi cua the gii a tam xet theo nhan gii van hoa. [4]

Nhieu sach bao a c viet bi hoac viet ve cac nha than hoc giai phong Chau My Latinh va Chau Phi (va Chau My goc Phi); trong khi o, tng oi t co nhng tac pham viet ve cac nha than hoc Chau A, t ra la tai Hoa Ky [5] .

Thien tieu luan nay co muc ch trnh bay va nhan nh ve nhng co gang suy t ma cac nha than hoc Chau A a lam e ngh cho ra va bieu at cho c mot nen than hoc kito mang ban sac dan toc.

Bi bieu t cac nha than hoc Chau A bao ham nhieu y ngha, nen can phai xac nh trc nhng g cac nhan nh trnh bay trong bai viet nay, muon hieu hay ch ve qua t ng ay. ay, tnh ng Chau A c dung e chu yeu ch ve nhng g thuoc vung ong nam va vien ong Chau A. Du se co nhieu lan nhac en cac than hoc gia An o, th bai viet cung don het ca chu y vao ni cac nha than hoc Sri Lanka, ai Loan va ai Han [6] .

T ng kia cung khong co y ch ve cac than hoc gia khong phai la ngi ban x Chau A, cho du ho co hoat ong tai Chau A va co nhng ong gop ang gia cho nen than hoc Chau A [7] .

Khi noi en than hoc kito mang ban sac dan toc la bai viet nay muon hieu ve nganh khao cu chuyen ve cong tac dung phng phap phe bnh ma nghien cu nhng y ngha ham cha trong truyen thong kito; viec nghien cu nay tien hanh t mot khi iem ro rang cung c can nhac ky, va da tren mot c s cu the; khi iem va c s o la nhng y ngha hien hien trong mot boi canh ton giao, chung toc, quoc gia, ngon ng va a d nhat nh. Cung mot luc va trong nhieu mc o khac nhau, nen than hoc ay nham vao ba hang oc gia sau ay: gii khoa bang, giao hoi va xa hoi [8] . 

Trong phan tiep theo sau ay, bai viet se, th nhat, trnh bay ve phng phap than hoc va nhng t lieu ma cac nha than hoc Chau A dung en; th hai, tm hieu ve cach thc bieu at mi ho s dung e ban ve mot so chu e c ban trong than hoc kito; va cuoi cung, a ra mot nhan nh ve gia tr cua viec doc toan lc nh the vao trong cong cuoc kien tao mot nen than hoc dan toc, cung nh gop phan e ngh them mot vai cong tac con can phai c thc hien.

PHAN I

So vi cac hnh thai Chau My Latin va nhng hnh thai khac cua than hoc giai phong, th cho ti gan ay, tieng noi cua Chau A trong lanh vc than hoc, cach rieng la than hoc cong giao, ch mi nh la mot tieng th tham thon thc. V than hoc Chau A nh ngi map phe trong cau truyen bnh dan Philippin Gungutan va Ngi bung b, - trong o, Ngi bung b b Gungutan bat phai dien xuat giac m gia v cua chang ta, va trong luc dien xuat nh the, Ngi bung b a hoa thanh mot lc s tre ep, - nha than hoc Tin lanh ngi ai Loan Choan-Seng Song a mo ta nh sau ve hien trang cua than hoc Chau A:

"Than hoc kito tai Chau A a qua map, het nh anh chang bung b kia; v the, kho ma co the i hoac chay vi cai bung to tng cong kenh cha ca khoi o an khong tieu ay c mot cai bung b nhoi nhet ay nhng trng phai than hoc, nhng ly thuyet chu giai Kinh Thanh, nhng nhan quan kito ve cac nen van hoa cung nh cac ton giao: tat ca eu xuat phat t giao hoi ben Tay phng va eu a c than hoc co truyen e xuat ra. Nen than hoc bung b ay lai con tr thanh phnh phe hn na khi ma khong gian bao la cua Chau A vi nhng nen van hoa phong phu, vi nhng ton giao ay sinh lc va vi nhng thien s soi ong, bat au co tranh gianh cho co cho chen chan vao trong cai bung b than hoc a qua tai ay. Ket qua la mac phai chng kho tieu khon kho. Quan tam hang au cua chung ta bay gi la phai lam sao e cha cho khoi chng kho tieu ay, la e lam cho nen than hoc kia 'xuong bt ky' i, va lay lai c phong o nhanh nhen ay nang ong cua mnh, hau tao ieu kien e tr nao Chau A phoi hp c vi than hoc chan chnh [9] .

Nhng, phai tien hanh the nao e co the lam cho nen than hoc bung phe kia thon gon lai, tr thanh mot nen than hoc manh mai, mang tnh chat Chau A chan chnh? Ong Song tiep tuc nhan nh va e ngh rang mot Gungutan than hoc co the tiep tr cac nha than hoc Chau A trong tac vu o, la:

1.      Sc nang cua oc tng tng on nhan t tay Thien Chua la ang a tao dng chung ta thanh nhng con ngi giong hnh anh Ngai;

2.      ieu o gom ham ca niem nhiet tam lam cho chung ta cam nhan ra c ngay trong noi tam chung ta cung nh ni ngi khac, long trac an cua Thien Chua;

3.      la chnh kinh nghiem ve moi hiep thong , lam cho chung ta nhan ra c rang chung ta co trach nhiem oi vi nhau va oi vi Thien Chua; va

4.      la chnh thai o y thc ve s kien Thien Chua cu o ang hien dien trong the gii, co sc mang lai cho chung ta kha nang can thiet e d kien mot ng hng mi cho than hoc [10] .

Noi cho cu the hn, chnh cac nha than hoc Chau A cung nhan ra ro la mnh ang b at trc thach o lam sao e thi hanh cho c cac tac vu nay: (1) phe bnh nhan nh ve than hoc Tay phng; (2) triet e dan than vao trong hanh ong giai phong gia xa hoi va trong giao hoi; (3) lam mot cuoc phan tch toan dien ve tnh trang van hoa xa hoi cua Chau A nham nhan dang cho ra nhng thach o ang ap vao trc mat Chau A; (4) thc hien cong trnh liet ke cac t lieu ma viec nghien cu than hoc co the tm thay tai Chau A; va (5) trnh bay lai cac iem c ban trong giao ly kito theo mot phng thc bieu at mi.

Phe bnh nhan nh ve nen than hoc Tay phng

Co mot s kien la, la cho du - hoac co le la bi v - ai a so a theo hoc tai cac ai hoc hay hoc vien ben Tay phng, th cac nha than hoc Chau A, cung khong chut nao khac vi cac ong nghiep cua ho Chau My Latinh, ho van - hoac v the ma ho - to ra het sc chan ngan that vong oi vi nen than hoc Tay phng. Tissa Balasuriya, mot linh muc ngi Sri Lanka thuoc Dong Truyen Giao c Me Vo Nhiem (OMI), a nhan nh cho la tong quat ma noi, than hoc Tay phng khong thch hp vi ngi Chau A, nang tnh chat bo lac, quy giao hoi, duy giao s, cau truc theo che o gia trng va t ban, thieu han chieu kch phan tch xa hoi, va khong co ng hng ay u cho hanh ong. Nha than hoc nay a noi len yeu cau can phai co mot ng hng mi cho than hoc, can phai tan can tach ri khoi nen than hoc Tay phng, v, theo ong ngh, o la nen than hoc yem tr ve mat y thc he, cho che o ba chu the gii cua Tay phng, cho bo may thong tr cua t ban hang e nang len tren ngi ngheo, cung nh cho tnh trang giao s nam gii thong tr trong giao hoi [11] .

Li ch trch khat khe am thang vao than hoc The Gii Th Nhat nh va thay, a vang doi len lai qua li phat bieu sau ay cua nhom co ten la "Hoi ai ket Cac Than hoc gia The Gii Th Ba" vi mot so kha ln thanh vien than hoc gia Chau A: "Xet v no khong thch hp, nen chung toi bac bo loai than hoc khoa bang ly thuyet, tach xa khoi hanh ong cu the. Chung toi a san sang e dt khoat cat t lien he vi kieu khoa hoc luan Tay phng, va lay viec dan than lam hanh ong au tien cua than hoc, roi ban ti chuyen suy t phe bnh ve sinh hoat cu the gia thc tai cua The Gii Th Ba" [12] .

Ngay nay, oi vi gii cac than hoc gia Chau A, viec coi than hoc Tay phng nh la san pham cua mot nen van hoa a b tha hoa va lam cho tha hoa, la chuyen thng tnh. Carlos H. Abesamis, mot tu s Dong Ten ngi Philippin, cho rang co ba giai oan chnh trong qua trnh tien phat cua than hoc: giai oan Semitc, giai oan Hy Lap, roi bay gi la giai oan Chau Phi va Chau A. Phat bieu tiep, nha than hoc nay a a ra cach thc phan biet mot ang la suy cu than hoc va ang kia la hoc than hoc. Hoc than hoc la phan phai co trong tien trnh tm hieu theo phng dien lch s, ve cong trnh khai trien c tin trong truyen thong La Hy; hoc than hoc lam cho tr thanh chuyen vien than hoc. Con suy cu than hoc la viec gia cong ngam suy ve hien trang con ngi trong anh sang cua c tin ca nhan, va cong tac nay lam cho tr thanh than hoc gia. ieu o khong co ngha la ngi Chau A phai loai bo truyen thong than hoc Tay phng ra khoi cong viec suy cu than hoc cua mnh. Qua vay, Abesamis a nhan la than hoc Tay phng co the cung ng nhieu th du va mo mau cho viec suy cu than hoc, va nh the ngi Chau A co the em suy t cua mnh ma so sanh vi cac kinh nghiem kia. Hn na, oi luc cung co the lay nhng nhan thc sau sac cua than hoc Tay phng e ghep vao trong than hoc ban x Chau A. ieu tuyet oi phai tranh la n thuan chuyen dch cac tac pham than hoc cua Tay phng hoac ngay ca cua cong ong Vaticano II rra cac th tieng Chau A, hay la 'thch nghi hoa'chung vi 'canh huong a phng'. Lam sao toi co the `ng dung' `Than hoc ve s chet cua Thien Chua' va `Than hoc ve viec S dung Thi gi ranh roi' vao trong hoan canh cua dan toc toi c, v oi vi dan toc toi, Thien Chua la ang hang song, va i song th kho nhoc vat va?" [13]  

Abesamis a giong len cau hoi nh the, va noi tiep rang e lam cho ung cach, th khong phai la mang cay Tay phng sang trong ben at Chau A, nh la phai "trong cho len cay cua chnh Chau Phi va Chau A chung ta, roi em ghep len o cho song va song manh, bat c nhng g can." [14]

Con cac n than hoc gia Chau A th len an cho rang than hoc Tay phng la nen than hoc a tng tiep tay cho te nan ap bc n gii va cho xu hng thien v cua che o gia trng: "Chung toi thay ro la chnh than hoc a cham them dau vao la nh the nao cho nhng te trang meo mo sai quay o. Chung toi a khai quat phi bay cho thay nhng tien e gia nh, nhng truyen thong, va nhng quan niem ton giao tng can ngan khong cho phep chung toi at ti mc sung man con ngi chung toi, cung nh lam cho hnh anh cua Thien Chua ni chung toi b m nhat i" [15] .

Ban uc ket ky hoi cua To chc Cac Phu N Trong Giao Hoi Chau A, nhom hop tai Manila, Philippin, vao cac ngay t 21 cho en 30, 1985, a tuan t liet ke ra nhng te trang meo mo ay: gii thieu hnh anh Thien Chua di sac dien gia trng; chu giai Kinh Thanh theo chu hng trong nam hn n; nhan manh qua ang en nam tnh cua c Kito; quang ba long sung knh c Maria; va thien kien chong n gii trong truyen thong kito, hang c ho tr bi nhng quan niem ton giao trong nam tai Chau A. [16]

Choan-Seng Song che trach phng phap khoa hoc luan c dung en trong than hoc Tay phng, ve cai loi qua coi trong le loi luan giai thuan ly, phng hai en cai ma tac gia goi la sc nang tng hnh cua than hoc. Nhac en tieng vong hay am vang sau am (hibiki) ma the loai ngan nhat trong thi phap Nhat Ban ch gom co mi bay am tiet (haiku), gi len trong tam long con ngi (cach rieng la bai th cua thi s bac thay Basho thi the ky 17). [17]

ong Song mieu ta hoat ong tng hnh hay la sc nang tng tng cua than hoc nh la kha nang nhan thc tieng vong cua thc kien Thien Chua hien dien ni moi loai moi vat trong vu tru.

Thi s hnh dung ra thi th. Hoa s hnh dung len tranh anh. The th, than hoc gia cung nen hnh dung e hnh thanh than hoc? Khong nhng la nen ma thoi, nhng con la phai na. Cach rieng, cac nha than hoc tai Chau A phai lam sao e co u kha nang hnh dung nen, ch khong phai la c co ma khai niem hoa cho c loi suy t than hoc cua mnh, bi v moi trng song cua ho la moi trng cua nhng nen van hoa phong phu trong o, sc nang tng hnh a tng mang lai mot phan ong gop het sc ln lao. Nen van hoa cua chung ta la mot nen van hoa c nan uon nen do sc nang tng hnh, ch khong phai la do kha nang khai niem hoa. o la mot nen van hoa biet rung cam vi nhp ieu cuoc song; v the, khong the bo sot ma khong long nhng nhan to ay vao trong phng cach nh ngha, bien luan, va thiet at cong thc c. Mot nen van hoa nh the th tat phai ong gop c nhieu cho sinh hoat tng hnh cua than hoc. Nhng, ang tiec thay la mot nen van hoa do au oc tru tng t ben Tay phng nan uc ra, a tiem quyen kiem soat au nao suy t than hoc cua Chau A. Lay lai cho c kha nang hnh dung than hoc ta nh thi s hnh dung ra thi phu va nh hoa s hnh dung nen tranh anh, la ieu can thiet c ban oi vi nhng no lc xay dng than hoc tai Chau A. [18]

Giong nh cac nha than hoc giai phong Chau My Latinh, cac nha than hoc Chau A cung nhan manh noi rang than hoc la hanh ong th hai i tiep theo sau hanh ong ma Aloysius Pieris, mot tu s Dong Ten ben Sri Lanka, goi la than hanh giai phong (liberation-theopraxis). [19]

Hanh ong nay chnh la cuoc au tranh e danh t do ve mat kinh te cung nh xa hoi chnh tr, mot cuoc au tranh thc hien nhan danh va vi hang trieu ngi Chau A ong ao chiem hn nam phan chn dan so the gii. Hoat ong than hanh ay chnh la phng cach dien at than hoc. Ban uc ket cua Hoi ngh Than hoc Chau A nhom hop vao cac ngay 2-20 thang gieng 1979 tai Wennappuwa ben Sri Lanka, a khang nh la:

"Trong boi canh ngheo kho va gia trang huong b ap bc, b khai thac cua hang trieu ngi Chau A ong ao, than hoc chung ta ang xay dng, phai co mot a kch lc giai phong ro rang dt khoat. Hanh ong au tien va cung chnh la con tim cua cua than hoc, la chnh thai o dan than. Thai o dan than nay la mot cau tra li cho thach o at ra t pha cac tang lp ngi ngheo ang au tranh e quyen lam ngi cua mnh c ton trong va am bao tron ven. Chung toi khang nh rang ngi ngheo va ngi b ap bc tai Chau A ang c Thien Chua keu goi e tr thanh nhng nha kien truc chu ong xay dng nen van mang cua chnh mnh. Nh the, than hoc khi au vi niem khat vong cua nhng ngi b ap bc hang mong tien c en mc song tron quyen lam ngi cua mnh, va at tin tng vao ni y thc ang len cua ho cung nhng no lc ma ho hang khong ngng a ra, e san bang moi chng ngai can ngan viec tm hieu ve nhng s that trong lch s cua ho." [20]

Hien nay, du mi ch lac ac tai mot vai ni, a co mot so cac nha than hoc Chau A tham gia vao cuoc au tranh cho cong ly va hoa bnh nh the, th o cung van la mot s kien ang c lu y. Aloysius Pieris trng dan ra bon cuoc th nghiem a c tien hanh tai trong x cua ong, o la: phong trao Devasarana do an s Anh giao Yohan Devananda hng dan; nhom Satyo-daya do tu s Dong Ten Paul Caspersz hng dan; Hoi ai hu Cac Cong Nhan Kito gom nhng thanh vien Phat giao, Hinu, Kito va Macxt thuoc ca hai dan toc Sinhala va Tamil; va cong oan do linh muc Michael Rodrigo, Dong Truyen Giao c Me Vo Nhiem, thanh lap. [21]

Cynnyc Cheng (Hong Kong) va Eunice Santana de Velez (Puerto Rico) a thuat lai kinh nghiem an va lam viec ngay tai mot on ien trong da. [22]

Samuel Rayan, mot tu s Dong Ten ngi An o, a ke lai kinh nghiem mnh song qua trong cac khu nha o chuot tai Colombo, ben Sri Lanka, va noi cho biet kinh nghiem kia a anh hng sau am nh the nao en cong viec than hoc gia cua mnh. [23]

Cac kinh nghiem tren ay cua cac than hoc gia nam trong khuon kho cua chng trnh ba ngay an va lam viec ngay trong cac moi trng ngi dan ngheo a c Hoi ngh Than hoc Chau A to chc cho cac thanh vien trc cuoc nhom hop trong cac ngay t 7 en 20 thang Gieng 1979, tai Wennappuwa, Sri Lanka. Ngoai hai kinh nghiem va ke, con co bay kinh nghiem khac ve canh cung sinh song cung lam lung tng t, nh chung song: vi dan chung lang que, vi dan chai lam nghe doc suot b An o Dng, vi cong nhan on ien trong tra, vi cong nhan nha may va nhan vien cong oan, vi cac phu n tai Baddegama, vi gii tre va sinh vien trong mot nong trai tap the, va vi nhng nhom dan thieu so tai Parantha. Du la rat ngan, cac kinh nghiem kia cung giup cho cac than hoc gia c cung co them hn trong niem tham tn nay cua mnh, o la: khong mot nen than hoc hay mot cuoc am luan nao ve Thien Chua lai co the b tach ri xe le ra khoi cuoc song cua ngi dan, ac biet la ra khoi cuoc au tranh cua nhng ngi ngheo va nhng ngi bi gat ra ben le xa hoi. [24]  

Viec cac than hoc gia ai Han phat trien Than hoc Tien Dan (Minjung Theology), - ma bai viet se ban ti trong phan sau, - con mang mot y ngha phong phu hn na. Nhieu ngi trong so cac nha than hoc nay (nh: Giao s Suh Nam-dong, mot trong nhng ngi e xng Than hoc Tien dan, va thi hao cong giao Kim Chi-ha) a b mat cho day hoc hoac b bo tu, va b chnh quyen Park Chung-hi hanh ha tra tan.

Nhng, trong than hanh, con co mot kha canh khac, ac thu ni cac nha than hoc Chau A, o la cuoc oi thoai lien ton. La tat yeu trong mot moi trng chung song vi cac ton giao ln tai Chau A, - ton giao cua ai a so ngi dan vung nay, va khong mang tnh chat Semitc, - sinh hoat oi thoai ay, theo Tissa Balasuriya nhan nh, tien hanh tren bon bnh dien: oi thoai qua con ng bieu at tri thc va nghien cu hoc hoi; oi thoai qua viec th t va phung vu; oi thoai trong cuoc song; song chung va lien he vi xa hoi nhieu mc o khac nhau; oi thoai trong khi tham gia vao cuoc au tranh e song con cua ngi dan. [25]

Tr Philippines ra, ngay nay tai Chau A, ngi kito kho co the to chc c mot hoat ong ai quy mo nao nham co vu cong ly va hoa bnh ma khong co s bat tay hp tac cua tn o cac ton giao khac.

Trong cong tac phat trien than hoc Chau A, khong c coi cuoc au tranh cho cong ly va cuoc oi thoai lien ton ch nh la hai hoat ong i song cach nhau. Nhieu lan, A. Pieris a bien luan noi rang o la hai mat cua cung mot ong cac, va a hieu cuoc oi thoai lien ton theo mot ngha rong hn, ch khong ch nh la nhng trao oi chnh thc ve mat giao thuyet. Tac gia nay con e ngh la can phai lam sao e cuoc oi thoai lien ton vt xa ra ngoai nhng gii mc the che cua cac ton giao (ma tac gia goi la ton giao sieu vu tru, metacosmic religions) hau co the lien he c vi tinh than ton giao (co tnh cach) vu tru (co ngha xau oi vi Tay phng, v coi nh ong ngha vi ao th vat linh hay thuyet van vat co hon": animism") cua cac dan toc Chau A. Tinh than ton giao vu tru nay ang c song manh ni cac ngi ngheo tai Chau A.

Pieris con phan biet gia canh ngheo cam chu do bat cong cung an ap gay ra, va canh ngheo t nguyen lam mam giong cho giai phong. Co biet song canh ngheo t nguyen nh la mot thai o chong lai canh ngheo cam chu va e noi len tnh lien i vi ngi ngheo, th mi co the xoa bo c viec phan cach lam oi gia mot ben la cuoc giai phong noi tam nham thoat cho khoi tnh trang no le tinh than, va ben kia la cuoc giai phong ben ngoai hau vt ra cho khoi nhng xieng xch no le hoa cua cac c cau xa hoi, chnh tr cung nh kinh te. Thc trang Chau A la san khau cua nhng anh hng qua lai gia tinh than ton giao va tnh canh ngheo kho; o chnh la tinh than ton giao cua cac ngi ngheo. oi vi Pieris, cong tac ban x hoa cua giao hoi Chau A se khong bao gi tien hanh c, neu ch duy co mot lanh vc oc nhat trong thc tai cua Chau A 'tc la tinh than ton giao sieu vu tru' la c thc s chu y en ma thoi. Tinh than ton giao cua ngi ngheo va tnh canh ngheo kho cua ai a so quan chung nhan dan song tinh than ton giao, la hai canh trang i lien ket oi lam mot e lam nen thc tai phc tap cua Chau A, va thc tai o chnh la khuon mo uc nen than hoc Chau A. [26]

Phan Tch Xa hoi, Van Hoa va Ton Giao: 

Than hoc kito trc nhng thach o cua Chau A

Cac nha than hoc Chau A nhan manh nhieu en tnh chat thiet yeu cua viec phan tch van hoa xa hoi, coi o la mot cau to trong yeu trong tien trnh xay dng than hoc, v co the, mi nan uc nen c mot nen than hoc thc s mang tnh chat chung toc, va thch hp cho Chau A. Hoi ngh cac nha than hoc Chau A tai Wennappuwa, ben Sri Lanka, a tuyen bo rang:

"Hoat ong cho cong cuoc giai phong ngi ngheo, than hoc co bon phan phai dung en phng cach phan tch cac thc tai xa hoi cua Chau A ma khi au tac vu cua mnh. Lam sao co the tham gia vao trong cong tac giai phong ngi ngheo c, neu than hoc khong hieu ro ve cac c cau xa hoi chnh tr, kinh te va van hoa ang no le hoa ngi ngheo?... Viec phan tch ay phai bao tron ca moi chieu kch dai, rong, cao va sau cua thc tai Chau A, t gia nh cho ti lang xa, thanh th, t quoc gia cho ti luc a va a cau. Tnh trang loai ngi tuy thuoc vao nhau ve mat kinh te va xa hoi chnh tr, a lam cho trai at co hep thu nho lai e ch con la mot ngoi lang hoan cau. Viec phan tch phai gi quang cach oi vi cong trnh nghien cu ang tien hanh hau am bao cho co c mot thai o khong ngng t kiem cung nh nhan nh ve cac ton giao, cac y thc he, cac the che, cac to nhom va cac tang lp dan chung, v t chnh ban chat cua chung, nhng thc the ay thng gap phai nguy c tr thanh nhng bo may quan lieu bat nhan." [27]

D nhien, cac nc Chau A khac nhau rat nhieu ve khong biet bao nhieu phng dien, en o khong mot cuoc phan tch xa hoi van hoa chung nao co the thch hp cho tat ca c. Can phai co nhng cuoc phan tch chi tiet ve tng nc; the nen, vi s tiep tay cua cac chuyen vien trong vung, cac nha than hoc Chau A a th thc hien nhng ban phac thao tom gon ve cac nc nh: Hong Kong, An o, Indonesia, ai Han, Philippin, Sri Lanka va Viet Nam. [28]

Kosake Koyama, mot than hoc gia Nhat Ban tng lam viec truyen giao bay nam tai Thai Lan, a a ra mot ban mieu ta d dom ma sau sac ve cac nc Singapore, Thai Lan, Trung Quoc, Burma, Nhat Ban va ai Loan, khong ke cac nc va neu trc ay. [29]

Cho du co nhieu khac biet ve mat van hoa va chnh tr, th tat ca cac nc Chau A cung eu song trong mot so trang huong ai the giong nhau. Trong ky hop tai New Dehli, An o, vao cac ngay t 17 cho ti 29 thang 8, 1981, cac nha than hoc Chau A a neu ra cac trang huong sau ay: (1) kinh nghiem thuoc a (o ho) va cac c cau thong tr gay suy nhc; (2) tnh trang cach biet gia ai a so dan ngheo va mot thieu so ngi giau; (3) lan song cua canh nhng ngi b loai ra ngoai le xa hoi cang ngay cang lan rong dan en hang khoi nhan dan trong cac cong ong quoc gia; (4) a v xa hoi thap kem va canh b ap bc cua n gii tai Chau A; va (5) hien tng banh trng cua chu ngha quan s va cac the che ap bc tai Chau A. [30]

Cac than hoc gia n quyen Chau A a neu bat tnh trang ap bc n gii tai luc a nay vi nhng li le nh sau: "Trong moi lanh vc cuoc song tai Chau A, n gii la nhng ngi b tr, b tc oat mat quyen lam ngi, mat pham gia lam ngi phu n; ho b ky th chong bang, b khai thac, b phien nhieu, b li dung va lam dung ve mat gii tnh, va b coi nh la hang ha cap, luon luon co bon phan phai lo at mnh di cai c goi la u the cua nam gii. Trong gia nh, gia giao hoi, trc phap luat, trong he thong giao duc cung nh ni cac phng tien truyen thong xa hoi, au au phu n cung b oi x vi th thanh kien, vi loai thai o danh cho hang ngi di. Tai Chau A va trong khap the gii, truyen thuyet ve ngi phu n Chau A qu luy, no dch, cang lam cho hnh anh oc oan va uc san ay co the manh hn." [31]

Ho neu len nhng hnh thc bao hanh chong lai n gii, nh: che o hoi mon, tuc le hoa thieu co dau, viec cng bach huy hoai kha nang sinh san va loi th nghiem e biet gii tnh thai nhi ap dung tai An o; hnh thc du lch mai dam tai Philippines; thai o ky th da tren c s ton giao cua trao lu chnh thong qua khch tai Malaysia; le loi truyen ngoi theo nam he trong che o Nhat hoang; va quy luat gia nh Khong giao tai ai Han.

Nhn nhan mon n tinh than ho co oi vi cach kieu cac nha than hoc Chau My Latinh s dung loi phan tch xa hoi cua chu thuyet Mac xt, nhieu than hoc gia Chau A a len tieng phe bnh t kiem ve viec ho c mot chieu nhan manh qua ang en nhng kha canh thuan tuy kinh te va chnh tr trong xa hoi. Pieris lu y rang mot loi `than hanh giai phong' Chau A ma ch dung en cac cong cu Macxt cua phng thc phan tch xa hoi khong thoi, th mai mai se la phi Chau-A va vo hieu cho en chng nao biet thu dung cac cong cu tam ly cua noi quan ma cac bac hien nhan cua chung ta a tng kham pha ra. [32]

Tac gia con neu ro la chu ngha Macxt khong co kha nang e anh gia ve chieu kch ton giao ma cac nen van hoa Chau A oc thay ni c kho ngheo, va nh the chu ngha ay khong the nhan ra c tac ong cach mang ma viec t nguyen song kho ngheo em lai. D nhien, cac nha than hoc Chau A y thc ro ve nhng cach thc s dung ton giao e hp thc hoa nguyen trang h on cua xa hoi va e vnh vien hoa canh ap bc trong xa hoi (nh che o ang cap trong An o giao chang han); tuy nhien, ho cung tham tn ve sc nang giai phong cua cac ton giao khong-semitc, la nhng ton giao a tng khi hng va hng dan cho mot so phong trao giai phong trong qua kh.

Viec phan tch xa hoi khong phai ch gii han ong khung vao ni xa hoi va van hoa Chau A khong thoi, nhng con phai c trai rong ra e bao gom ca giao hoi kito na. Hau het cac than hoc gia Chau A eu cho rang tr mot vai trng hp rat hoa hiem ra, cac Giao hoi Kito, Cong giao cung nh Tin lanh, eu phan ln, con la Giao hoi tai Chau A, ch cha tr thanh thc s la Giao hoi cua Chau A. Pieris con buoc toi cho rang Giao hoi Kito a ap dung chien lc pha hoai than hoc e qua o, cac giao hoi Tay phng nhan danh cong tac hoi nhap van hoa ma nam gi quyen kiem soat va ra toi cac bieu tng cua nhng ton giao khong-semitc nham cung co cac quyen li rieng cua mnh: "Hoi nhap van hoa kieu ay la to ra khong quan tam e knh trong cho u mo mau cu o (hoc) cua cach thc dung bieu tng trong cac ton giao khong kito, la thoai mai tiep tay cho li buoc toi coi cong tac o la mot dang tra hnh cua chu ngha e quoc... Trong boi canh ay, cn sot hoi nhap van hoa co the xem ra nh la mot bc lieu lnh phut chot e co tao cho giao hoi co c mot bo mat Chau A, bi a that bai trong viec am sau goc re mnh vao gia long at Chau A: that bai v khong mot ai a dam ra tay anh v chiec chau La Hy, trong o, suot bon the ky dai, giao hoi a tng go mnh sinh song ta ho mot cay bonsai can coi!" [33]

Du co to long biet n oi nhng cong trnh ma cac giao hoi kito a thc hien trong lanh vc xa hoi nham phuc vu nhng ngi om au benh tat, nhng tre em mo coi va tung quan, cung nh trong lanh vc giao duc (cac trng hoc kito a chiem c long knh phuc trong khap cac nc Chau A, va v the, oi luc cung khong tranh c thai o o k...), th cac than hoc gia Chau A cung lay lam buon v xet ve mat to chc chnh thc, cac giao hoi kito tai Chau A con ang nh la mot `cay trong chau,' a t x ngoai vao ma khong c thc s cay trong va ben re vao trong vung at mi, va con ang song mot loi song ta nh la keo ho dan dnh ben ngoai, ch khong giong nh men trong bot, bi le ch biet gan chat vi nhau thanh nhng khu, nhng nhom nho song tach biet, bo bo lo cho s song con cua rieng mnh hn la cho cong tac xay dng quoc gia dan toc, hn la cho nhng hoat ong hu hieu trong cac lanh vc xa hoi va chnh tr. [34]

Nhng thach o tai Chau A at ra cho Than hoc

Co chu yeu oi vi cong cuoc nghien cu than hoc, th viec phan tch xa hoi cung khong phai la mot cong tac t no can thiet. Muc ch cua cong tac ay la nhan dien nhng thach o ma hoan canh van hoa xa hoi at ra cho giao hoi va than hoc. The th, than hoc Chau A ngay nay ang phai oi dien vi nhng thach o nao? Samuel Rayan a oc thay tam thach o nh sau: [35]

Thach o th nhat en t pha cua hang trieu trieu ngi dan Chau A: vi nhng kinh nghiem song qua moi ngay cung vi canh ngheo kho phai chu, ho se ong gi vai tro nao trong cong tac hnh thanh than hoc Chau A, va nen than hoc nay se co nhng ong gop nao cho cuoc song cua ho? Thach o th hai khi phat t cam thc ton giao cua cac dan toc Chau A va cua cac ton giao va ong so va co knh trong ai luc: neu khong biet quan tam en ho, th than hoc khong the noi len c tai Chau A mot li nao co y ngha ve Thien Chua, va cung khong lam c mot cong tac thc s hu hieu nao co sc e xuc tien cong cuoc giai phong; vay th, than hoc se quan tam nh the nao en ho? Than hoc se hieu nh the nao ve vai tro (cu o) co mot khong hai cua c Kito? Thach o th ba phat sinh t canh ngheo oi vat chat ma ong ao quan chung nhan dan khong ke xiet ang song qua tai Chau A: canh c cc cung khon va ban thu ay cua dan chung co se tr thanh mot nguon t lieu (locus theologicus) cho than hoc hay khong? Roi se co mot cuoc oan tuyet dt khoat vi nhng truyen thong than hoc chieu theo khuynh hng hp thc hoa canh ap bc va ngheo oi hay khong? Thach o th t bat nguon t canh ngheo oi ton giao: lieu than hoc co giup cho biet ro c ve cac chieu kch xa hoi cua Phuc Am cung nh cua cac b tch, va co to chc c mot cuoc nghien cu phe bnh ve he thong t ban va a chnh tr cu the cua giao hoi hay khong? Thach o th nam la do hoan canh hau thuoc a a ra: lam the nao e than hoc co the giup cho ngi dan lay lai c niem t hao t trong cua mnh, tm ra c sc nang rieng mnh co, nhn thay c nhng vien anh xa hoi mi me ti sang, va biet da theo o ma hanh ong? Thach o th sau xuat au lo dien t mot qua trnh chnh tr han ro vet tch cua nhng che o quan s, cua nhng chnh quyen cai tr bang luat gii nghiem cung nh cua cac chnh the oc tai: Lieu than hoc co can am thi hanh trach vu cua vai tro tien tri ma nhan nh phe bnh ve cung cach x s cua cac gii cam quyen va ve nhng the thc hanh ong ve mat chnh tr do chnh ho thiet at hay khong? Thach o th bay xuat phat t mot qua trnh mang nang tan tch cua canh ap bc va thai o phan biet giai cap trong xa hoi, cua vo so nhng cam k, nhng lang lo s set va nhng thoi tuc d oan: lieu than hoc co dam to ro lap trng cua mnh, co dam suy ngh theo cach bieu at cua giai cap, va kham pha cho ra nhng ham y tiem ngu trong tin mng (mang en) cho ngi ngheo kho hay khong? Thach o cuoi cung la do cac nc xa hoi chu ngha chiem loi mot na dan so Chau A, a ra: lieu than hoc co kham pha ra c y ngha ton giao va tinh than cua thai o vo tn cung nh cua chu ngha vo than i lien vi viec dung ng loi chnh tr ma thc hien giac m Macxt hay khong? Hay la ch biet rap khuon theo ng loi chong cong cc oan, ma khong lo e tam g ti cau hoi va neu tren ay, la cau hoi sang ro nhat trong cac cau hoi ma Thien Chua ang ac biet neu len cho thi ai nay?

T lieu cho mot nen Than hoc Giai phong Chau A

T lieu san co e da theo o ma nan uc nen mot nen than hoc Giai phong Chau A u kha nang ng ap thch ang cho tam thach o va ke tren ay, la nhng g? Trong mot oan trc, bai viet a co dp nhac en s viec cac nha than hoc Chau A a to thai o nghi k ra mat oi vi truyen thong than hoc Tay phng. Ca Tissa Balasuriya lan Sebastian Kappen (mot tu s Dong Ten ngi An) eu a len tieng yeu cau can phai tien hanh cho Kito giao Tay phng mot cuoc tay tr nao trang giao ieu" (dedogmatization). [36]

Carlos Abesamis e ngh nen xep truyen thong Tay phng lai mot ben khi lam viec suy t than hoc, cho du khi hoc than hoc th khong co lam nh the. [37]

Tuy nhien, cach chung, cac than hoc gia Chau A nhan manh noi la than hoc phai c xay dng ngay trong boi canh cuoc song cua giao hoi, du than hoc co phai ra sc e tranh cho khoi tr thanh quy giao hoi, va gi cho c a hng quy nhan ban cua mnh. Muc ch cua than hoc khong phai la e phuc vu quyen li cua giao hoi, nhng la e co xuy cong cuoc giai phong ngi ngheo va hang khoi ong ao nhng ngi dan ang b ap bc e nen. [38]

D nhien, cung vi truyen thong kito, Kinh Thanh van la nguon t lieu chu yeu - du khong phai la oc nhat hay oc quyen, - oi vi cac nha than hoc Chau A. Ly do la v du co gan chat vi mot nen van hoa nhat nh, th Kinh Thanh cung thuoc ve giai oan semitc trong tien trnh phat trien cua nen than hoc Tay phng. Abesamis luan giai rang giai oan semitc ay la thi ky sang lap cua Kito giao, va la dang thc bieu at au tien cua s iep kito. Trong giai oan ay, lch s cu o a c minh hoa vi tat ca tnh chat trung thc, tron ven cung nh vi noi dung ay u cua no; khong may e y en cac van e sieu hnh hoc, giai oan ay a chu trong lu tam nhieu hn en lch s loai ngi, va v the, no phu hp hn vi tinh than cua Chau A cung nh vi cac khat vong cua The Gii Th Ba. [39]

Ngoai Kinh Thanh va truyen thong giao hoi, - ma ho co bon phan phai dien dch lai cho boi canh song cua ho, - cac than hoc gia Chau A con co san trong tam tay nhng t lieu khac co tnh cach a phng hn.   [40]

Nguon t lieu au tien cua than hoc Chau A la chnh nhan dan Chau A vi nhng kinh nghiem nhan ban phong phu cung a dang ho a song qua, cung nh vi canh ngheo kho va ap bc ho ang phai chu. Nhan dan chnh la chu the, la dien vien cua than hoc. Cac nha than hoc giai phong Chau A nhan rang "ngi ngheo la nhng ngi co the gop phan tot nhat e phat trien than hoc kito trong chieu hng giai phong ngi ngheo." [41]

Tnh canh, nhng khat vong va nhng vu au tranh cua nhan dan la nhng nguon cung cap t lieu cho than hoc Chau A. Tuy nhien, nh Pieris a nhan nh, tai Chau A cac than hoc gia khong phai la nhng ngi ngheo, va nhng ngi ngheo th lai khong phai la than hoc gia. V the, cac nha than hoc chuyen nghiep phai biet lang nghe tieng noi cua nhng ngi ngheo va nhng ngi b ap bc, cung nh phai biet noi len cho ro nhng khat vong va nhu cau cua ho. Ngoai ra, tai Chau A, co nhng 97 phan tram ngi ngheo khong phai la ngi kito; xay dng than hoc cung vi ho la nhng chu the cua than hoc, co ngha la phai noi ve Thien Chua trong va qua tinh than ton giao, cac tn ngng, cac bieu tng, cac nghi thc va cac loi song khong kito. o la mot thach o khung khiep, ma cung va la mot nguon t lieu phong phu cho nen than hoc Chau A.

Nguon t lieu th hai la nhng kinh th thanh cua cac ton giao Chau A - Hindu, Phat giao, Lao giao, Khong giao va cac ton giao khac. Nhien nha than hoc Chau A a khang nh rang Thien Chua noi trong va qua cac kinh th ay, la nhng cua an tinh than a tng - hang the ky trc cong nguyen (trc thi khai sinh Kito giao) - va van con ang nuoi song ngi Chau A. Chang nhng can phai ao sau cac kinh th ay e kn muc ra nhng suy t than hoc sau sac khong thoi, ma con phai dung chung vao ca trong viec th t phung vu na. [42]

Cuoc oi thoai lien ton va communicatio in sacris mythis (viec thong d vao cac huyen thoai thanh) la nhng nhan to chu yeu oi vi than hoc Chau A.

Nguon t lieu th ba la cac truyen thong tu hanh, cac mau truyen (truyen khau va thanh van), cac bieu tng, nghe thuat, kien truc va van hoa dan gian mang tnh chat ton giao. Pieris a bien luan cho rang dang thc ban x hoa Kito giao thch hp nhat tai Chau A chac chan khong phai la loi nhap the vao trong mot nen van hoa khong-kito theo kieu Latinh, cung khong phai la loi ong hoa mot nen triet hoc khong-kito theo kieu Hy Lap, va cung chang phai la loi thch nghi vi mot tinh than ton giao khong-kito theo kieu Bac Au. ieu can phai lam la tham gia vao mot nen tu c (linh ao) khong-kito theo kieu tu hanh. Nhng Pieris cung len tieng canh giac ve nhng sai lech khac nhau trong cach ng dung linh ao Chau A, nh la: kieu hanh ong pha hoai than hoc (nh a nhac en trc ay); khuynh hng tao ra hoac nuoi dng mot gii an khong ngoi roi" (otium) ni cac trung tam cau nguyen, va cac ashrams hau co keo cho c nhieu ngi en tnh dng tam tr trong mot so gi khac ngan ngui hn la e song mot i hy sinh t bo; chu hng buon ban nham en viec xuat khau nen than b va cac ky thuat chiem niem qua Tay phng cho ngi ta tieu dung, het nh la xuat khau tra, ong, go va dau vay; va viec dung, mot cach y thc hay vo thc, i song tu hanh nh cong cu chien lc chong lai cac ke thu chung trong lanh vc thieng lieng ao c. Muon that s la trung thc, th viec tham gia vao truyen thong tu hanh Chau A phai i oi vi cong cuoc au tranh cho cong ly. [43]

Viec s dung cac mau truyen (truyen co that va dan truyen) va cac vu ieu cung a c Than hoc Tien dan a ra thc hanh trong mot cach thc thc ay sc nang sang tao, nh se thay ban en trong phan hai bai viet. Phng thc phan tch lam cong cu cho Than hoc Tien dan th, nh Andrew Park Sung-ho a neu ro, co tnh cach trnh thuat hn la kinh te: "Khong phai loi phe bnh xa hoi theo kieu Macxt, nhng chnh nhng mau truyen cua tien dan (minjung) mi la nhng cong cu co kha nang e thc s vach mat c cau cua mot xa hoi mang tnh chat ap bc t trong goc re." [44]

Cac than hoc gia n quyen thuoc trng phai Than hoc Tien dan cung a tm thay lai c sc nang giai phong cua Shaman giao oi vi n gii. [45]

Han cac than hoc gia Chau A se ong y vi nhng y kien dan ao sau ay cua Pieris:

Trc het, hay hoc cho biet ngon ng dan gian. Hay tham d cac nghi thc va nghi le cua nhan dan Chau A; "hay nghe nhng bai ca ho hat; hay cung rung cam vi nhng nhp ieu cua ho; hay a chan bc theo vu ieu ho nhay; hay thng thc nhng bai th ho ngam; hay hieu cho thau cac huyen thoai ho thuat; hay gap g ho qua cac truyen thuyet ho ke. Ban se nhan ra rang ngon ng ho noi, bieu at ro moi lien he ho co vi cac chan ly c ban ma moi ton giao mot cach, ton giao nao cung eu gi chat: y ngha va van menh cuoc i con ngi; than phan lam ngi vi nhng gii han rang buoc, nhng lai vi mot kha nang vo bien e khac phuc chung; cong tac giai phong ca con ngi lan vu tru; tat mot li, no lc au tranh nham xay dng mot nen nhan ao tron ven." [46]

D nhien, cac nha than hoc Chau A cung y thc ro ve s viec cac nguon t lieu ton giao va van hoa cua ho. , a tng va ang co the s dung e hp thc hoa cung phuc vu quyen li cua cac gii co the lc trong xa hoi. Chang han, cac kinh th  Vea, Upinisad, Anh hung ca, va Purana a tng c ang cap cam quyen Balamon viet ra hay sa cha lai vi muc ch bao quan u the ac quyen ac li cua ho trong xa hoi. Chang han, th tap Purusha-sukta trong kinh th Rig Veda coi he thong ang cap nh mot the che a c Thng e chuan phe. The nen, biet dung ky thuat nhan nh phe bnh ma s dung cac nguon t lieu ay cho chnh xac la mot van e cc ky quan trong, tc la phai biet vach tran nhng thien kien y thc he an mac trong chung, va phuc hoi tiem nang giai phong ma chung tang tr. Qua cach ong dan giai ve cac th tap Ramayana va Bhagavad Gita, Samuel Rayan a neu cho thay mot mau th du ac sac cua viec giai thch cac kinh th ton giao ung ho giai phong.  [47]

Nguon t lieu th t la nhng trnh thuat va nhng kinh nghiem ve canh ap bc va ngheo kho ma ngi phu n Chau A a va ang phai song qua. Ca mot so ang tang len cua cac nha than hoc n quyen a th da theo nhan quan cua Chau A tnh va n tnh cua mnh e ma xay dng than hoc. [48]

Cac nhan nh tren ay ve nhng nguon t lieu khac nhau cua than hoc Chau A, a cho thay la cac than hoc gia Chau A ang ac biet lu tam en mot iem chu chot, o la: co lam sao e lien ket viec hoi nhap van hoa va cong cuoc giai phong lai vi nhau. Qua the, nh Pieris a manh me qua quyet, than hoc tai Chau A la cong cuoc mac chieu c Kito cua nhng kinh nghiem khong-kito ve giai phong." [49]

Mot nen than hoc Chau A la mot nen than hoc thiet at c s tren tinh than ton giao cua nhng ngi ngheo kho, va tren c kho ngheo cua nhng ngi co niem tin ton giao.

PHAN II

Phan hai thien tieu luan nay se lc trnh ve ba no lc a c a ra e th xay dng mot nen than hoc Chau A. Du co dung nhng phng phap nghien cu chung, th cac co gang nay cung gii thieu ba the dang khac nhau cua than hoc Chau A. The loai th nhat la do Tissa Balasuriya, mot linh muc cong giao Sri Lanka, thuoc Dong Truyen Giao c Me Vo Nhiem, e xuat; the loai th hai do Choang-Seng Song, mot giao dan ai Loan thuoc giao hoi Trng lao, xng xuat; con the loai th ba th phat xuat ben ai Han va c goi la Than hoc Tien dan. D nhien, trnh bay cho can ke ve mot khong thoi trong cac the dang va noi, th cung khong the lam c vi khuon kho co han cua bai viet nay, ch ng noi chi ti ca ba. Muc tieu cua bai viet ch gii han ni viec oc cho ra nhng chu e chnh cua cac the dang than hoc nay, va xem cho biet cac the dang ay a thanh cong en mc nao trong co gang ng dung vao trong thc hanh cac ng hng cung phng phap ban en trong phan trc.

Trong phan mot, bai viet a co dp nhac en li phe bnh anh thep cua Tissa Balasuriya len an cho than hoc Tay phng b van hoa han che, la quy-giao hoi, la danh u the cho nam gii va co xa, la pho t ban, la chong cong san, la khong cach mang, la thieu han quan tam oi vi viec phan tch xa hoi, va qua ly thuyet. [50]

Tac gia giang rong tay hoan nghenh on tiep trao lu phat trien cac the loai than hoc giai phong canh huong c phat ong tai nhieu ni trong the gii, coi o la lieu thuoc giai oc cho nhng hau qua tac hai do loai than hoc Tay phng noi tren ay gay ra. Tuy nhien, do chnh ban chat cua chung, cac the loai than hoc canh huong ay cung ri dan vao tnh trang tr thanh nhng phan bo xe le rieng ri, bi ch ben re vao trong nhng hoan canh va kinh nghiem han hep cua nhng a phng ca biet. Va nh the, co the chung se e sang mot ben, khong lu tam g en van e e phong nhng y o va chu mu thong tr toan cau.Do o, tac gia a e ra giai phap ma ong goi la mot nen than hoc toan vu (planetary theology):

"ieu ang can... la mot trao lu trao oi bien chng gia cac cuoc au tranh a phng va thi cuoc the gii, gia than hoc a phng va mot nen than hoc co s menh gia cong tm hieu ve y ngha cua cac thc tai toan cau... Phng thc hanh ong vi tam hng toan vu nh the se co gia tr het sc ln trong cong tac khai trien mot chien lc toan cau nham dan en cai cach xa hoi. Ch co mot phng thc hanh ong toan vu kieu ay mi u sc giup cho chung ta biet ton trong cac ca nhan con ngi bat c ho au, bat chap di san chung toc, mau da, tn ngng, phai tnh hay giai cap xa hoi cua ho la g." [51]

Va roi, van trung thanh vi phng phap than hoc giai phong va vi quan niem rieng cua mnh ve than hoc toan vu, Bala-suriya tiep tuc bien luan, danh tron na cuon sach cua ong, ta e Than hoc Toan vu (Planetary Theology) , e lam mot cuoc phan tch ve he thong chnh tr va kinh te the gii, ve Chau A, ve vien canh va nhng muc tieu cua mot trat t mi trong the gii, ve nhng chien lc nham thc hien nhng cuoc bien oi sau rong khap ni trong the gii, ve vai tro cua ton giao trong tien trnh bien oi ay, ve moi lien he gia Kito giao Tay phng va he thong to chc cua the gii ngay nay, va cuoi cung la ve nhng thach o ma Chau A a ra cho Kito giao. [52]

Bai viet khong xet thay can phai a ra mot nhan xet e lng nh xem cong trnh phan tch xa hoi va chnh tr Balasuriya thc hien, co chnh xac, va cac chien thuat ong e xuat nham thiet at mot trat t mi cho the gii, co thc s hu hieu hay khong. ieu ang lu y ay la xem Balasuriya a can c nh the nao tren c s ket qua cua cuoc phan tch ong thc hien, e trnh bay lai cac iem c ban trong giao ly kito theo mot the cach bieu at mi.

Theo Balasuriya th hien co ba van e chnh ma Kito giao phai ng au tai Chau A; o la: cuoc au tranh cho s song con ngi; cuoc chung song vi cac ton giao khac cua Chau A, va canh ap bc n gii Chau A. e co the khai trien mot nen than hoc toan vu trong boi canh nh the, th Balasuriya a th suy cu lai ve mot so tn khoan c ban cua c tin kito. Thien Chua a c gii thieu nh la ang tao dng va hn het, nh la ang giai phong. La ang tao dng, Thien Chua quan tam lo cho con ngi va trai at sinh ton sung tuc thoai mai. Bala-suriya a co nan uc ra mot the quan bnh gia mot ben la viec s dung tai nguyen trai at e thoa man cac nhu cau cua loai ngi, va ben kia la cong tac bao ve moi sinh. Roi da theo trnh thuat cua sach Xuat Hanh, Balasuriya a gii thieu Thien Chua nh la ang giai phong, khong nhng cua cac ngi Do thai, ma con cua ca toan the nhan loai na.

Con nhng suy t cua Balasuriya ve Kito hoc, th nhan manh en s iep cua c Giesu lch s noi ve Nc Thien Chua, s iep ma Balasuriya a giai thch cho rang o la mot s iep ch ve mot con ngi mi va mot xa hoi mi, ch ve nhng gia tr mi cua cac ca nhan va cua xa hoi, [53]   va la mot s iep qua o, c Giesu len tieng bao ve pham gia cua ngi ngheo cung nh cua n gii, va ch trch cac giai cap the lc - ton giao cung nh chnh tr. a anh, c Giesu chu yeu la mot nha lanh ao ton giao, nhng Balasuriya lu y them la thai o va giao huan cua Ngai lien quan en yeu thng, cong ly va hoa bnh, a tr thanh iem tu cua cac cuoc au tranh cach mang cho cac gia tr ay va co the khi hng cho thai o ac biet chu tam en viec xay dng mot mo mau phat trien kinh te va xa hoi v li ch cua ai a so quan chung nhan dan, hn la ch nham u ai mot thieu so tinh hoa. [54]

Khong phu nhan, nhng Balasuriya cung a khong ban chi en thien tnh cua c Giesu; trai lai, ong thch noi en c Kito vu tru va s vien man toan vu, hoac la en chieu kch kito" (Christic dimension), e t o rut ra nhng ham y ch ve mot nen than hoc toan vu:

"Viec suy t ve chieu kch vu tru cua c Kito, co the a dan chung ta en cho biet nhan nh lai mot so nhng sai lech c ban trong nhng g thng c coi la t tng kito. Cuoc tao dng can phai c quan niem lai, tc la can phai c hieu theo cach thc c Kito hien dien trong toan bo thc tai tao vat. Mot cach nhan thc nh the se anh hng sau am en thai o cua chung ta oi vi vu tru. Tinh than ton trong thien nhien va moi lu tam e gn gi thien nhien cho khoi b o nhiem, can kiet va tan pha, roi se mang c mot chieu kch kito sau rong.

"Mau nhiem Nhap The va Cu Chuoc cung se phai c quan niem lai, tc la khong phai ch n thuan c hieu can c theo cuoc i va quang thi gian song tai the cua c Giesu thanh Nadaret ma thoi, nhng con phai lu y en y ngha toan vu bao ham ca chieu kch vu tru cua c Kito na. Va nh the, lch s loai ngi se c anh gia lai e c hieu nh la thi ai thuan li cho viec nhan loai minh triet tr ve cung ang Tao Hoa, qua va trong c Kito. Mac khai se c hieu nh la mot tien trnh lien tuc, bat au vi cong cuoc tao dng va khong bao gi cham dt. Ngoai Kinh Thanh va truyen thong kito ra, s iep cua Thien Chua gi en cho loai ngi con can phai c kham pha cho ra va cho khiem ton ngay tai trong thien nhien, tai trong lch s va trong chnh ban than cua chung ta na. Cac ton giao, cac nen than hoc va cac phong trao khac trong nhan loai cung can phai c nhn nhan la nhng thanh phan nam trong tien trnh bieu hien ay cua c Kito. Bi vay, linh ao cua thi ai toan vu se hnh thanh nh la hoa trai cua viec suy niem ve the gii, ve canh thong kho cua nhng con ngi ang co mat trong o, va ve nhng y nh quan phong cua Thien Chua oi vi toan bo cong trnh tao dng. [55]

Khoa giao hoi hoc cua Balasuriya th lai yeu cau phai lam mot cuoc hoan cai nham em s menh cua Giao hoi thoat ra khoi nhng lang lo cho viec song con cua mnh va cung co chnh mnh, ma a ve vi cong cuoc giai phong con ngi: Mot khai niem oi mi, mot khai niem toan vu ve s menh va ve cong tac phuc am hoa, tat phai danh u tien cho viec co xuy va ay manh cac quan he lien i - xay dng tren nen tang cac gia tr kinh thanh cua the che cong chnh, tc la cua Nc Thien Chua, - gia nhng ca nhan cung nh gia cac dan toc. [56]

Cuoc hoan cai ma Giao hoi ang ra sc tien hanh, phai la mot cuoc hoan cai bao gom ca nhng the che xa hoi na, ch khong phai ch la mot no lc rieng t ni cac ca nhan ma thoi. Trong cong tac ay, Giao hoi phai hp tac vi cac pha oi lap con tiem tang hoac ang co mat trong thc te, chang han nh la cac ngi theo chu thuyet Macxt hay xa hoi chu ngha. oi vi noi bo cuoc song cua chnh Giao hoi, Balasuriya len tieng yeu cau duyet xet lai muc ch va s menh cac Dong tu, cung nh cong viec truyen giao do ngi kito The Gii Th Ba tien hanh nham phuc vu The Gii Th Nhat cung nhng gii u tu trong cac nc The Gii Th Ba, va ong thi cu xet viec can phai xoa bo nhng ranh gii giao phai, cung nh can phai giai phong phu n cho khoi tnh trang ky th gii tnh trong le loi to chc cua Giao hoi.

Bc sang lanh vc day giao ly va phung t, Balasuriya a giai thch Mi ieu Ran va Bay B Tch theo mot cach thc mi, tc la neu bat nhng ham y ve xa hoi tiem an trong o. Ong cung len tieng ch trch tnh cach ca nhan chu ngha cung ne nghi thc trong le loi phung t kito, va nhan manh en nhu cau can phai co mot the dang phung vu hng ti hanh ong cu the, xin xem ibid., 226-243. can phai a cac ngay le van hoa vao trong phung vu cung nh can phai biet thu dung cac nghi thc, cac bieu tng va cac kinh th thanh cua cac ton giao khong-kito.   [57]

Cuoi cung, Balasuriya khai trien mot hng linh ao cong ly. Tac gia oi chieu linh ao phung t vi linh ao tien tri, coi the dang au la nang tnh chat ca nhan chu ngha va sung mo, e coi the dang sau la thc s trc ch hng ve vi cong cuoc bien oi xa hoi. Linh ao cong ly hieu long tin vao Thien Chua nh la mot cuoc dan than vi trach nhiem phai biet tin tng sau xa vao ni a tien cua lch s, xac tn rang trong a tien o, cac moi tng quan gia ca nhan, trong xa hoi va trong hoan cau dan dan se c cai thien; hieu niem hy vong nh la mot a tac ong trng ky va ay lac quan, e don tron lc vao trong viec xay dng tng lai; va hieu long yeu thng nh la hoa trai do cong ly mang lai. Tac gia cung a ra nhng e ngh rat cu the ve cach thc thc hanh lam sao e co c c cong ly xa hoi, va phac hoa ra nhieu phng sach cho le loi hoat ong chnh tr at c s tren can am, khon ngoan va on hoa. [58]

Than hoc toan vu do Balasuriya e xuat, a ac biet theo sat phng thc suy cu cua than hoc giai phong, tc la bat au suy t t viec phan tch xa hoi va tiep tuc da theo nen tang ay ma rut ra nhng nhan nh than hoc. Ong a co cong trong viec lam cho ngi ta chu y en nhu cau can phai quan niem va bieu at than hoc giai phong theo mot cach thc toan vu, lam sao e tranh cho tam trong yeu cua cac nen than hoc canh huong hay a phng khoi b giam thieu i, va e at cac nen than hoc nay vao trong boi canh chung cua cac he thong ap bc va bat cong tren toan the gii. ang ca ngi na, la viec ong at trong tam s menh cua Giao hoi vao ni cong tac giai phong, cung neu bat chieu kch xa hoi cua phung vu va cac b tch. Gia cac nha than hoc Chau A, ong la ngi au tien e xng viec th da theo vien canh Chau A ma trnh bay theo mot dang thc mi, nhng iem chu yeu troong giao ly c tin kito.

Tuy nhien, du co don het chu y vao viec da theo vien canh Chau A ma khai trien mot nen than hoc toan vu, th ngoai li keu goi a cac ngay le, cac nghi thc va cac kinh th ton giao vao trong sinh hoat phung t, tac gia cung khong noi ro g nhieu en viec hoi nhap cac truyen thong van hoa va ton giao Chau A vao trong he thong than hoc cua ong. Chang han, khong thay e ra mot co gang nao nham quan niem lai ve Thien Chua hay ve Thien Chua Ba Ngoi trong anh sang cua t tng ton giao Hinu, hoac la cua Phat giao Theravada (tieu tha) khong-hu than (non-theistic). Trong phan bien luan ve Kito hoc, du co neu len khai niem ve chieu kch kito, th cung khong tm thay mot li giai thch nao ve cach the chieu kch ay hien dien trong cac ton giao tai Chau A, hay lam cho ng nghiem cac ton giao ay nh the nao. Va cung chang thay co mot no lc ro rang nao nham ti viec cay trong cong bnh xa hoi vao trong loi song thc thi kho ngheo t nguyen cua i tu hanh tai Chau A. Noi chung, he thong than hoc cua Balasuriya ch la mot the dang than hoc giai phong theo quan iem Chau A, ch cha phai, ca ve mat ton giao lan van hoa, la mot nen than hoc thc s Chau A.

Phan thieu trong ay a c hau h bo khuyet bi cac tac pham than hoc cua Choan-Seng Song. [59]

Trc ay, bai viet a co dp nhac en li phe bnh cua tac gia Song cho la than hoc Chau A chu anh hng qua nang cua than hoc Tay phng, cung nh li ong e ngh xay dng mot nen than hoc dan toc ch thc vi cac t lieu tiem tang trong sc nang hnh dung cua Chau A va trong hoat ong giai phong thc thi v li ch tha nhan cung c xay dng tren c s long xot thng cua Thien Chua. Con nhng g tac gia a ra e nhan nh phe bnh ve cac giao hoi va cac the dang than hoc kito Chau A th a c ngam ch trong cuon sach au tien cua ong; trong o, tac gia a th da theo cach nhn Chau A ma quan niem lai ve s menh kito. Song yeu cau "lam le be mac" cho cac s vu (truyen giao) cua giao hoi Tay phng tai nc ngoai, e "mng vui v giao hoi cua The Gii Th Ba a rot cuoc at en tuoi trng thanh, mng vui v giao hoi nay a co gan da u e tuyen bo ro rang chng sau cung cua lch s Tay phng ve cac s vu (truyen giao) nc ngoai a dt khoat cham het." [60]

Tac gia quan niem rang s menh kito am re t trong hai iem giao ly song oi ve cong trnh Thien Chua tao dng va nhap the. Tng ng vi hanh ong Thien Chua tao dng, s menh kito phai c tien hanh trong bon lanh vc nh sau: van hoa, lch s, xa hoi, va chnh tr. Tng ng vi hanh ong Thien Chua t huy mnh i trong bien co nhap the, s menh kito phai dt khoat lot bo thai o ch biet bo bo lo sao cho a trien dng cua mnh ngay cang ln rong them len, va thay vao o, phai biet lo cho li ch cua nhan loai, v, theo ong Song nhan nh, "bao lau giao hoi con ban tam lo ngh ve ac chat mnh, ve s khoe manh va an toan cua rieng mnh, th bay lau chuyen giao hoi phuc vu s menh cua c Kito, - s menh t huy mnh i, - ch la chuyen moi mep." [61]

Tiep tuc da theo anh sang cua ban chat s menh kito, - la s menh co bon phan bieu dng s hien dien cua c Kito trong the gii qua cac hoat ong xay dng cong ly va hoa bnh, - ong Song suy cu lai ve cac b tch, ac biet la b tch Thanh The. oi vi ong, cac tran tranh cai ve b tch a tng dien ra gia cac pha Cong giao va Tin lanh, eu c coi nh la nhng tran anh s d a xay ra la v bat ong ve cac van e giao hoi, giao phai, phung vu: hieu nh the la khong ung; cho ung hn, th phai coi cac b tch co quan he en s menh kito. B tch la nhng li noi the hien qua hanh ong nham tien hanh cuoc giai phong xa hoi chnh tr. Hn na, chung can phai c nhan thc trong khuon cua tnh b tch cua vu tru, trong o moi s eu mang tnh chat b tch di mot dang thc tiem tang, bi v the gii a c dng nen bi Thien Chua, va a c cu o bi c Kito. Theo cach thc o, ong Song bien giai tiep rang "nh the, khai niem ve mot vu tru mang tnh chat b tch tat phai co u kha nang e giup chung ta ni rong tam hoat ong cua s menh kito. ieu o nhac nh cho chung ta nh lai rang khong co mot lanh vc hoat ong nao c goi la lanh vc ton giao co ranh gii ro rang va danh rieng cho viec thc thi s menh kito ca. S menh kito co bon phan phai quan tam en (tat ca) nhng moi quan tam cua con ngi ve mat van hoa va xa hoi, cung nh en (tat ca) nhng g con ngi can en ve mat ton giao." [62]

Da theo mo hnh kinh thanh cua cuoc Xuat hanh, ong Song tiep tuc can ke giai thch dai rong ve chieu kch xa hoi chnh tr cua s menh kito, tc la tac vu co xuy t do trong giao hoi cung nh gia xa hoi:

"Khong the nao Giao hoi chay thoat c ma khong phai oi dien vi oi hoi cua c tin mnh, buoc mnh phai ng ve pha ong ao quan chung nhan dan trong cuoc au tranh cho cong ly, bnh ang va t do. Nhng Giao hoi cung khong the ong y vi viec s dung cng lc a en cho o mau va gay ra han thu. ang khac, Giao hoi cung khong the lang yen ng nhn tham trang tan tanh o v cua chnh c cau cong ly ma nhan dan a can am co cong xay dng cho c, bat chap moi kho khan va hiem nguy. The nen, s menh cua Giao hoi la cho cung ng mot nen tang tnh thng kien co e tren o, - va ch tren o ma thoi, - cong ly co the thiet at cho mnh mot c cau co y ngha va tng oi ben lau." [63]

Khong the ban en s menh kito tai Chau A ma khong e cap ti s hien dien va vai tro cua cac ton giao khong-kito. Tac gia Song xac tn rang trong cong tac oi thoai vi cac ton giao Chau A, tnh chat (vai tro) pho quat cua c Kito can phai c cong bo; du co c cong nhan hay khong, th han n hue the hien ni cac ton giao ay cung phai co lien he vi an sung Thien Chua ban qua c Giesu Kito. Tuy nhien, tac gia khong ong y vi hoc thuyet cho rang cac ton giao khong-kito la khong g khac ngoai praeparatio evangelica hay praeparatio incarnationis (bc chuan b cho Phuc Am hay cho cong cuoc Nhap the), theo o, cac ton giao ay khong co mot gia tr noi tai nao, va v the, mot khi cuoc Nhap The a thanh tu, th chung khong con (co gia tr) hu dung na. Tac gia chu trng rang a tng hien dien luc khi au cuoc tao dng va nay a tr thanh hien dien trong c Giesu Kito, th mai mai Li cua Thien Chua van la nen tang cua i song ao c (linh ao) con ngi. [64]

Bon phan cua s vu truyen giao la at tn o cua cac ton giao khac ra trc s hien dien cua c Kito. Co the la ho on nhan (tr lai vi) c Kito; tuy nhien, s viec on nhan ay khong co ngha la phai dt khoat cat t vi nhng lien he ton giao va van hoa tng co trc o cua moi ngi; do o, rat co the se co nhng tn o Phat giao Kito, Hinu Kito, Khong giao Kito va van van.

Cuoi cung, tac gia Song a khuyen cao la nen lam sao e s menh kito tai Chau A trut bo han ieu ma ong goi la nao trang ne hnh thai" (morphological fundamentalism), tc la cac giao hoi tai Chau A can phai lo gaang het sc e loai bo nhng hang rao ngan cach gia cac giao phai (trong cac lanh vc to chc quan tr, phung vu, va than hoc: la nhng di san do cac giao phai/giao hoi goc Tay phng e lai), thai o du do ton giao, va chu trng tinh hoa truyen giao (cho rang khong phai tat ca, ma ch mot so thoi mi la nhng ngi truyen giao). [65]

Trong cac tac pham xuat ban sau o, ong Song a trnh bay lai, vi nhng thay oi kha ro trong quan iem, ve hai chu e chnh cua ong, tc la: cong tac ban x hoa qua cach dung kha nang hnh dung van hoa, va hoat ong xa hoi chnh tr. Neu trong cuon sach au cua ong ch lac ac co mot vai ghi chu trng dan cac van pham Chau A (hau het cac chu thch eu trng dan cac tac gia Chau Au hay Bac My), th trong nhng cuon sach xuat ban sau o, viec s dung cac nguon t lieu Chau A a ot nhien tang len rat nhieu. o khong phai la viec lam khong co chu y, v bay gi, ong ang muon viet ve mot nen than hoc con mat th ba" (Third-Eye Theology). T ng 'con mat th ba' xuat x t Phat giao, va co y ch ve kha nang thay ra c nhng vung cho en nay cha bao gi nghe noi en va b che khuat khoi tam nhn cua chung ta bi chnh tnh trang ngu dot cua chung ta. Tuy la mot nen than hoc mang nang tnh chat Latinh va c, nhng cho en nay, nen than hoc Tay phng lai nam tron ca the lc va anh hng tai The Gii Th Ba (ong Song coi o la tnh trang than hoc b cam co trong nguc tu cua anh hng Latinh va T-tong (c). e thoat cho khoi canh no le ay, th cac nha than hoc Chau A phai biet m con mat th ba ra, tc la dung en "kha nang nhan thc va thau hieu co sc giup ho nam c y ngha tiem an di mat noi cua cac s vat va cac hien tng." [66]

Theo ong Song, than hoc kito Chau A can bat au khong phai la t nhng nguyen tac tru tng va tong quat, nhng la t hai thc kien can ban nay, o la: tnh yeu va kho au; tnh yeu, bi v ang Thien Chua hoat ong trong lch s a c Kinh Thanh mieu ta nh la agape (tnh yeu); va kho au, bi v c Phat a sang suot nhan ra rang i la kho au, cung nh bi v vo so quan chung nhan dan Chau A ang phai song trong mot trang huong kho au het sc ln lao. Nguon xuat phat va kha nang tien hanh cua than hoc la chnh tnh yeu Thien Chua, tnh yeu ma Ngai bieu lo ra trong cong cuoc tao dng va cu chuoc, hoac - noi theo kieu cua ong Song, - trong noi kho tam cua Thien Chua. Tnh yeu ay cua Thien Chua la mot tnh yeu hien con ang au kho tai mot ni va mot thi nhat nh nao o trong the gii. Ngam suy ve tnh yeu ay cua Thien Chua, than hoc:

"Se bat au khong phai la vi viec hoc hoi ve Thien Chua, nhng co le la vi viec hoc hoi ve nhan loai, viec hoc hoi ve dan chung va ve the gii, tat mot li, vi viec hoc hoi ve cong trnh tao dng cua Thien Chua. Con ngi vi nhng van e cua no - xa hoi, chnh tr, tam ly, moi sinh, hay bat c g khac na, - la nhng g se lam nen oi tng cua than hoc. Con the gii vi cac th y thc he, to chc va c cau, vi cac ton giao, cac loai nghe thuat va thi ca, th se cung ng nhng chu e cu the e lam nen mot nen than hoc song ong. The la toan the vu tru vi het thay moi kho khan va van e gap thay trong o, eu can en cong tac phan tch va giai thch cua than hoc. " [67]

Van tiep tuc tien bc theo con ng phng phap cua rieng mnh, Song a danh nhng chng dai trong sach cua ong e lam mot cuoc phan tch van hoa xa hoi ve Chau A, cung nh e trnh bay ve cac ton giao Chau A. [68]

Cuoc phan tch nay a c dung lam hau canh cho tien trnh than hoc i t the che ton giao dan toc chuyen quyen (ma ong Song goi la the che hng tam, centrism) cua Do thai giao va Kito giao, bc sang tnh trang bien ong trong cac quoc gia dan toc Chau A. Mot cuoc di ong nh the - cuoc di ong ma tac gia goi la giai oan chuyen dch - se ven m cho thay Thien Chua hien dien trong phan at menh mong nay cua the gii, mot phan at nam ngoai cac truyen thong Do thai-Kito. Trong cuon The Compassionate God (ang Thien Chua Giau Nhan ai) , tac gia Song a giai thch cho thay tai sao the che hng tam la mot trong nhng tr ngai chnh cho viec xay dng than hoc Chau A. The nen, e co the hoan thanh giai oan chuyen dch, th bc au tien can phai lam, la nhan cho ra nhng sc nang tiem an trong Cu c, nhng sc nang a tng keo traen ra khoi the che hng tam e at ho vao trong quan he giao te vi cac dan nc khac. Bc th hai la tm hieu ve cac co gang ma c Kito a thc hien nham giai thoat dan toc mnh cho khoi canh hng tam ay cua ton giao va dan toc ho. Bc th ba la kham pha cho ra nhng cach thc Thien Chua hien dien vi n cu o cua Ngai, gia nhng kho au cua cac dan toc Chau A ang phai cong lng ganh chu canh song ngheo tung, ach ap bc va bat cong. Co the, th mot nen than hoc chnh hieu Chau A mi lo dang len c.

Trong cong trnh nan uc nen nen than hoc dan toc nh the, ong Song a thng xuyen dung en rat nhieu cau chuyen, bai th, mau truyen dan gian, tieu thuyet, va hoa pham khac nhau, chon loc t khap ni trong Chau A. Noi bat na la cac danh ngon va giao huan cua cac bac hien triet ton giao cung nh giao thuyet cua cac ton giao Chau A. Ong a gam suy ve noi sau kho va niem hy vong cua mot thieu phu Viet Nam phai song trong canh goa bua co n, a oc cho ra tnh chat b tch cua mot bat cm, a suy t ve viec phung t to tien, a dien giai cac bai th haiku va cac tieu thuyet cua Nhat Ban, a be gay xieng xch cam buoc sc nang giai phong cua cac bai dan ca ai Loan va ai Han, a ca tung thi pham cua mot ngi cach mang b cam tu ben Philippines, a giai thch ve ngu y cua cac bc tranh biem hoa a kch Reagan va ang Tieu Bnh, va a ven m cho thay tnh cach phe bnh sieu viet cua cac vu ieu gia trang. [69]

ang ac biet lu y la phan sang tac ma ong Song a da theo mau truyen dan gian Trung quoc ve Ba Meng ma thc hien nham trnh bay ve than hoc chnh tr. Cau chuyen la the nay: chong cua Ba Meng a b Tan Thuy Hoang e giet lam te pham hy sinh nhan dp xay trng thanh e phong thu, va xng cot cua Ba th sau khi b nghien nat thanh tro bui do lenh Hoang e v toi Ba a ca dam len tieng nguyen rua hanh ong ac oc va bat cong cua nha vua, cuoi cung lai tu ve trong mot con ca nho.

Lch s cua mot dan nc khong chu yeu he tai ni cac hoang e, cac vua chua hay tong thong hoac chu tch nha nc; cung chang he tai trc het ni tieu s cua cac anh hung cach mang. Cai lam cho lch s tr thanh that s la lch s, chnh la nhan dan, trong o, hon thieng cua Ba Meng song con - nhan dan ma du co b ha nhuc khinh miet va lam dung boc lot, th cung van bng song day e lay sc nang phuc sinh ma oi au vi quyen lc cua than chet...

"La nhng ngi kito cua Chau A, chung ta cung a c sap nhap vao trong chnh trao lu ay cua lch s nhan dan. ieu chung ta muon viet nen, khong phai la lch s kito. Bao lau chung ta con muon viet s kieu ay, th bay lau thien s chung ta viet ra, cung van la khong hn khong kem mot thien s truyen giao, mot th lch s quanh quan ghi ve cac tn oan va giao phai khac nhau. Nhng neu chung ta bat au biet nam tay nhau e cung viet lch s vi cac ong bao Chau A cua chung ta, th roi ng ngang, chung ta se nhan ra rang hoa ra thien s ay chnh la lch s cua thap gia va phuc sinh tai Chau A." [70]

Trong phan trnh bay ve Kito hoc, tac gia Song c mai t hoi mnh rang co phai tron hai ngan nam nay, c Giesu hang ch i e lang nghe xem t pha cac phan at a cau goi la The Gii Th Ba, ac biet la t Chau A, co vong len c mot li g mi noi ve Ngai hay khong. e tra li cho cau hoi o, ong Song a co sc tm kiem cho ra nhng mau chuyen ve nhng kho au va bao hanh ap bc ma cac dan toc Chau A ang phai chu, nham xay len mot nen Kito hoc am re t ben di, co sc ong nhat hoa c Giesu vi ngi dan ang b ong inh, nam cung nh n.  [71]

Than hoc cua ong Song la mot the dang than hoc thc s co c mot tieng noi tien tri cng dung, mot a lc doon thuc manh liet ay sc nang giai phong, va o cung la mot mau than hoc a c tam p trong tinh hoa mau m cua nen van hoa va cac ton giao Chau A, a c sinh ong hoa bi mot kha nang hnh dung phong phu, cung nh a c mot loi viet linh hoat trang iem cho duyen dang them len. Ngoai ra, no cung a c truyen thong Cai Cach (Tin Lanh) nuoi nang sung tuc, vi khuynh hng nhan rat manh en Li Chua va thap gia cua c Kito. Cac van ban gii thieu no, th a c theu det kheo leo ta nh cac tam tham muon mau, chang cht noi ket cac trnh thuat Kinh Thanh chong cheo vi nhng tuyen t tng cua van hoa va ton giao Chau A, da theo cap truc song oi -ben xoan chat che vi nhau va cung co cho lan nhau, - cua viec hoi nhap van hoa va cua cong tac giai phong xa hoi chnh tr. Ngi ta co the tham c rang ch g ong Song a biet lu y en ay u hn e ng gat bo sieu hnh hoc ra mot ben mot cach qua de dang nh the, va biet ao sau bi rong hn vao trong cac ham mo triet hoc cua cac ton giao Chau A, trong khi ong gia cong suy cu nham xay dng mot nen than hoc Chau A ve Thien Chua va the gii. Nhng, chac han cong trnh cua ong la mot the dang than hoc ky thuat (narrative theology) a at c en chop nh cua the loai ay.

Chnh ong Song cung a anh gia rat cao ve mot the dang than hoc ky thuat khac, tc la Than hoc Tien dan (Minjung theology). [72]

La mot t ghep ai Han gi nguyen khong dch ra, Minjung gom hai t goc han la min (co ngha la manh , dan) va jung (co ngha la chung , nhieu ngi, ai chung). e chung lai, th t ghep Minjung co ngha la ai chung nhan dan hay la dan chung. Tuy nhien, theo nh ngha cua Moon Dong-whan, th trong than hoc Minjung, t ghep Minjung ch ve toan the dan chung b ap bc ve mat chnh tr, b boc lot ve mat kinh te, b tha hoa ve mat xa hoi, con ve mat van hoa th lai b the che xa hoi hien hanh km ham giam chat trong vong ngu dan that hoc. [73]

La mot dang the than hoc mang tnh chat hoan toan ban x, Than hoc Tien dan a phat sinh t thien s (saga) dai ang ang cua gong cum ap bc va ha nhuc ma cac the lc c ln nh Trung quoc, Nhat Ban va Nga cung cac gii tinh hoa trong xa hoi cac nc ay, a at nang len tren vai cua nhan dan ai Han. Tnh trang chia cat at nc thanh hai mien Nam va Bac nh ang thay hien nay, cung la mot trong nhng hau qua ma tnh trang nc ngoai thong tr a a ti.

Hau canh gan ay nhat cua Than hoc Tien dan la cuoc au tranh do cac nhom Kito, tr thc va cong nhan khi xng e chong lai nhng bat cong va che o oc tai cua Park Chung-hi trong thap ky bay mi. Can ban trong viec gay dng len Than hoc Tien dan la thai o dan than va hanh ong tham gia vao cuoc au tranh nham mang lai nhng oi thay trong cac lanh vc xa hoi, chnh tr va kinh te. Xet ve mat phng phap, thai o dan than ca nhan nh the la muon noi len rang khi can phai lam than hoc, phng thc quan trong nhat trong thuat truyen at t tng la ke chuyen. Cac cau chuyen nay co the la nhng cau chuyen trong cuoc song thc te hang ngay ( silhwa ) va nhng mau truyen dan gian ( mindam ). Chung c trnh ke va hat len qua cac vu ieu gia trang (talch'um ), qua hnh thc nhac kch ai Han ( pansori ) hay la qua cac nghi thc Shaman giao (kut ). Chung cung co the c ke lai bang ngon t, gia nhng luc trao oi tro chuyen trong i song hang ngay. Muc ch cua viec ke chuyen la e lam cho ngi dan y thc ve s viec ho ang song trong tnh trang b ap bc va ho co bon phan t giai phong mnh ra cho khoi canh huong ay.

Than hoc tien dan c ket cau chung quanh hai khai niem c ban nay, la: han va dan , tc la han va gian . Trong Than hoc Tien dan, han (han) co ngha la noi tc gian va long phan no cua cac gii tien dan: "moi cu han ay a thanh ngay cang sau am va manh me hn trong tam t cua ngi dan, bi cang ngay ho cang tr thanh nan nhan cua nhng bat cong chong chat nhieu hn." [74]

Phng cach e giai tr han (han) , c goi la dan, tc la gian , cach xa, cat t. Theo Kim Chi-ha, th hanh ong ay phai c tien hanh tren ca hai bnh dien ca nhan va tap the. Tren bnh dien ca nhan, hanh ong ay oi hoi phai biet t bo chnh mnh hay la hy sinh cua cai va nhng tien nghi vat chat. Viec t hien nay se cat t moi cu han han ra khoi tam hon chung ta. Tren bnh dien tap the, dan co the c ng dung nham tien hanh cong cuoc cai bien the gii bang cach nang cao mc song cua con ngi. Theo Kim Chi-ha giai thch, th tien trnh ay gom bon giai oan: y thc ve s viec Thien Chua hien dien trong chung ta va ton th Ngai; lam cho y thc ay ln len trong chung ta; thc thi nhng g niem tin vao Thien Chua day cho chung ta; va dung ng loi cai bien the gii ma khac phuc nhng bat cong. [75]

Con cac than hoc gia khac thuoc trao lu Than hoc Tien dan, ac biet la Hyun Young-hak, va cac nha than hoc n quyen th lai ung ho viec dung en nhng phng thc truyen thong hn, nh la nghi le, nhac kch, vu ieu gia trang, va nghi thc shaman, e giai tr moi cu han han. Qua cac sinh hoat ay, ngi tham d se tm en c vi ieu goi la chieu kch sieu viet cua thai o phe bnh e nh o moi cu han se c giai tr va viec giai phong se thanh tu. [76]

Kinh nghiem cua nhan dan ve noi cu han han khong phai la nguon hng truyen cam duy nhat a khi ong nen Than hoc Tien dan; bi v, ngoai kinh nghiem o ra, con co bien co c Giesu en trong lch s va hoat ong cua Thanh Linh na. Bien co c Giesu c coi nh la mau goc cua het thay cac bien co giai phong khac, va Than hoc Tien dan ang tien dan en cho coi nhng t au tranh giai phong trong lch s dan toc ai han nh la nhng bieu hien khac nhau cua bien co c Giesu. e bieu at cho chnh xac hn, th phai noi la khong phai c Giesu a ch than hien dien trong cac phong trao giai phong cua ai han, nhng chnh la Thanh Linh, ang sieu thi gian va khong gian, hang hien dien sinh ong tai ai han va cac ni khac, cho du viec hien dien ay khong minh nhien cho thay moi quan he vi c Giesu lch s.

Sau het, Than hoc Tien dan c a anh dau sau am bi tnh chat canh chung, va danh cho y niem ve thi thien nien mot vai tro chu yeu. Suh Nam-dong a phac ra mot hnh thc phan biet gia Nc Thien Chua va thi thien nien, gia quan niem giai phong chnh tr (political messianism= kieu chnh tr theo chu ngha dan tuy) va ng hng chnh tr giai phong (messianic politics= kieu chnh tr gi len moi hy vomh co ka canh ton giao). Bieu tng Nc Thien Chua a tr thanh tru tng va xa la oi vi the gii nay: o la y thc he ma cac gii cam quyen thng dung e tien hanh chu thuyet giai phong chnh tr cua ho; con y niem ve thi thien nien th cu the va quen thuoc oi vi the gii tran gian nay: o la bieu tng cua niem hy vong ma dan chung at het vao ni ng hng chnh tr giai phong ho ang gia cong theo uoi. [77]

Trong ba the dang tieu bieu cho than hoc Chau A nh va thay tren ay, chac han Than hoc Tien dan la the dang mang nhieu tnh chat dan toc nhat. No phat nguon t chnh kinh nghiem het sc ac trng cua dan toc va ca cua tinh than quoc gia na. Va o cung la mot the dang than hoc giai phong tieu bieu nhat, bi a biet chuyen nhat don het chu tam vao viec suy cu ve han va ve cach thc giai tr moi cu han ay. Co the coi the dang ay nh la dien an phat bieu cua mot the dang than hoc giai phong dan toc vi nhng u va khuyet iem c rut ta e lam bai hoc cho viec xay dng cac loai than hoc ban x. Nhieu nha phe bnh a noi len thien cam va to thai o ca ngi oi vi Than hoc Tien dan v a biet: oi hoi cac ca nhan phai cu the dan than vao trong cong cuoc giai phong xa hoi va chnh tr; no lc e thc s a Kito giao hoi nhap vao trong canh huong cu the cua kinh nghiem chnh tr va van hoa ma cac ngi ngheo va nhng ngi b ap bc ang song qua; dung en phng phap ky thuat; va quan tam en quyen li cua n gii. Nhng ang khac, cung co nhng li phe bnh chong lai Than hoc Tien dan v mot so iem, nh: chu trng thuyet ho lon (syncretism, ac biet la trong viec thu nap Shaman giao); at kinh nghiem len tren Kinh Thanh; lang man hoa dan chung; nhan manh qua ang en tnh chat ac oc cua c cau; ong nhat hoa minjung (dan chung) vi Dan Chua; ong nhat hoa c Giesu vi minjung; va theo chu hng at con ngi lam trung tam. [78]

PHAN III

Phan ket nay se thau tom nhng net bieu trng chnh yeu cua mot nen than hoc giai phong Chau A, va e ngh them mot so cong tac con can phai lam.

1. Giong nh tat ca moi the dang than hoc giai phong, cac the dang than hoc giai phong cua Chau A cung ac biet nhan manh en tnh chat thiet yeu cua viec cac ca nhan phai cung vi va v cac ngi ngheo, cu the dan than va tham d vao trong cuoc au tranh e phuc hoi va bao toan nhan pham va cac nhan quyen cua nhng ngi nay.

2. Giong nh cac the dang than hoc giai phong khac, cac the dang than hoc giai phong cua Chau A cung neu bat nhu cau can phai dung en ky thuat phan tch xa hoi, coi o la mot thanh phan khong the thieu trong tien trnh suy t than hoc. Tuy nhien, cac than hoc gia Chau A a lu y rang du co hu ch oi vi lanh vc kinh te, th loi phan tch (theo kieu) Macxt cung khong thch ang cho hoan canh cua cac nc Chau A, la nhng nc ang ngup lan trong ngheo oi tot bc, nhng cung la ni khai sinh hau het cac ton giao the gii.

3. Do o, muon cho cong tac ban x hoa hay canh huong hoa Kito giao tai Chau A thanh tu, th khong phai ch mot mc dung en cac hoat ong xa hoi khong thoi, nhng con can phai biet dung en ca viec hoi nhap van hoa va ton giao na. Hai tien trnh nay la hai mat cua cung mot van e. Co biet d phan vao trong tinh than ton giao ao c cua hang hang lp lp ngi ngheo, th ngi kito mi co the tr thanh ngi kito Chau A thc s.

4. Hau het cac than hoc gia Chau A eu xac tn rang truyen thong va than hoc Tay phng - tng c hoac la cac nha truyen giao du nhap vao Chau A, hoac la cac hoc vien Chau A hap thu trong thi gian ao tao khoa bang tai cac ai hoc Tay phng, - th khong may thch hp oi vi cac hoan canh xa hoi va giao hoi trong moi trng song cua ho. Ch luc nao chieu kch xa hoi chnh tr cua c tin kito c the hien hu hieu (Than hoc Tien dan va Balasuriya), va cac tn khoan can ban trong giao ly kito c trnh bay lai trong mot hnh thc bieu at thch hp vi boi canh cua cac ton giao khong-semitc tai Chau A cung nh cua nen van hoa Chau A (Song), th luc o mot nen than hoc thc s Chau A mi xuat au lo dien vi u long u canh c c.

5. oi chieu vi cac thanh tu cua than hoc giai phong Chau My Latinh, th se thay ngay la than hoc Chau A con ca mot con ng dai can phai i. Mot trong nhng ly do cho thay tai sao hien co rat t nhng sang tac than hoc va - quan trong hn na, - rat t tac ong trc tiep tren cac giao hoi a phng gia tang lp dan thng, la v cac than hoc gia Chau A khong co cung mot th tieng me e chung e thong at cac t tng cho nhau (tr ra Anh ng la th tieng cua phan ln nhng ngi i chiem cac nc Chau A lam thuoc a!). Va ngay ca khi tieng Anh c dung troi chay e noi va viet, th viec dung ngoai ng nh the e dien at hoac trnh dch t tng, cung se lam cho mot so cac ieu tinh te va cac tieu d trong nen van hoa b bo sot hoac lu m i. Du kho khan la vay, th nhu cau cung van con o, va cac than hoc Chau A cung van co bon phan phai ng ap nhu cau ay: nhu cau thc hien nhng chng trnh tng t nh CEHILA (La comission de Estudios de Historia de la Iglesia Latino-Americana: Uy Ban Nghien Cu Lch S Giao Hoi Chau My Latinh) va Teologa y Liberacion (Than hoc va Giai phong). Noi cach khac, trong t the la mot nhom, cac than hoc gia Chau A can phai tra tay vao viec da theo nhan quan cua cac dan toc Chau A ma viet lai lch s cua giao hoi, va da theo boi canh cua cac ton giao va cac nen van hoa Chau A ma trnh bay lai cac tn khoan trong giao ly kito qua mot hnh thc bieu at thch hp va co he thong. Co le, tien trnh thc hien cac phng an nh the kia roi se ven m cho thay mot cach cu the hn, nhng u va khuyet iem cua nen than hoc dan toc Chau A, e co the can c theo nhng d kien ay ma ieu chnh va cai thien cho hoan hao hn.

6. Trong cong trnh xay dng than hoc Chau A nh the, mot trong nhng van e gai goc nhat ma cac than hoc gia Chau A phai oi pho, la viec chon lap trng ve mat phng phap, trong tng quan vi di san kito a tng c khai trien theo khuon mau Tay phng. Ba the dang than hoc trnh bay tren ay co the c coi nh la nhng the dang tieu bieu cho ba phng cach kha d tiep tay c cho cong tac hoi nhap van hoa cua Kito giao tai Chau A. Ben pha phai th co Tissa Balasuriya, la ngi a co gang da theo vien canh Chau A ma khai trien mot nen than hoc toan vu; tuy nhien, ong van con nang n rat nhieu vi cac pham tru cua than hoc co truyen. Ben pha trai lai co Than hoc Tien dan, mang tnh chat hoan toan ban x, co quyet tam dt khoat du ang thi th au, nhng lai khong c am bao cho lam ve mat tnh chat kito. Con C.S. Song th ng pha gia: ong a dung en rat nhieu cac t lieu Chau A trong than hoc cua ong, nhng ong thi van trung thanh vi di san kinh thanh. ieu ma bat c mot the dang than hoc Chau A nao se chao i trong tng lai, cung eu co bon phan phai nghiem chnh thc thi, la lam the nao e gi cho c ban chat kito trong tat ca moi co gang hoi nhap van hoa.

7. Theo thien y cua toi, th gia cac van e ma than hoc gia Chau A co bon phan phai quan tam en trong tng lai ke can, van con tiep tuc co mat nhng van e a tng lam cho ho phai nan oc suy ngh trong ba thap ky va qua, o la: (a) giao ly ve Thien Chua Ba Ngoi va vai tro cua c Giesu Kito vi t the la ang Cu o (pho quat cho toan the) tran gian, trong tng quan vi cac ton giao khac; (b) cong tac ay manh viec phat trien cac hnh thc phung t, kinh nguyen va i song giao co tnh cach tham thuy dan toc; hoat ong truyen giao ben ngoai cac ranh gii phan cach giao phai theo kieu Tay phng; (d) cong tac phat trien to chc c cau giao hoi theo sang kien cua Phong trao Tam t (Three-self Movement) a c khi xng ben Trung quoc; va (e) s viec cac che o xa hoi chu ngha van con tiep tuc hien dien, du cong san chu ngha a bang hoai tai nhieu ni khac tren the gii.

 

Nguyen The Minh chuyen ng


[1] Cha Phero Phan nh Cho hien la giao s Chu nhiem khoa Than hoc cua ai Hoc Cong Giao Hoa Ky (Catholic University), tai Washington DC. Bai viet nguyen van tieng Anh, mang ta e Experience and Theology: An Asian Liberation Perspective, ang trong tap ch Zeitschrift fuer Missionswissenchaft und Religionswissenschaft 77(1993)99-121.

[2] Tc mainstream , co ngi con goi la (malestream= nam (gii) hng) T ng malestream la do nha xa hoi hoc n gii Dorothy Smith e xuat. Elisabeth Schuessler Fiorenza a dung t ay trong bai viet cua ba, ta e The Politics of Otherness: Biblical Interpretation as a Critical Praxis for Liberation, trong tac pham cua Marc H. Ellis va Otto Maduro (eds.), The Future of Liberation Theology: Essays in Honor of Gastavo Gutierrez, (Maryknoll/New York, 1989)312,

[3] Xin xem Gustavo Gutierrez, Beber en su propio pozo. En el itinirario espiritual de un pueblo. Lima, 1983. Lien quan en vu ban cai ve ba khuon mau trong cong tac khai trien mot nen than hoc a phng, tc la chuyen dch, cai bien, va canh huong hoa, xin xem Robert Schreiter, Constructing Local Theologies, (Maryknoll/New York, 1985)6-16.

[4] Xin xem Johann Baptist Metz, Standing at the end of the Eurocentric Era of Christianity: A Catholic View, trong tac pham Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.), Doing Theology in a Divided World, (Maryknoll/New York, 1985)85-90.

[5] Xin xem bo tieu luan viet ve than hoc Tin Lanh tai An o, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thai Lan, Indonesia, Phi Luat Tan, ai Loan, ai Han va Nhat Ban: Gerald H. Anderson (ed.), Asian Voices in Christian Theology , (Maryknoll/New York, 1976). Tac pham nay cong hien mot th muc co gia ve cac tac pham cua than hoc gia Chau A viet trong cac th tieng Tay phng. ay, xin ghi them ban cap nhat mot phan, liet ke cac tac pham than hoc Chau A ke t nam 1976: J. Russell Chandran, Development of Christian Theology in India: A Critical Survey, trong Sergio Torres va Virginia Fabella (eds.) The Emergent Gospel. Theology from the Developing World, (London, 1978)157-172; Douglas J. Elwood (ed.) What Asian Christians Are Thinking. A Theological Sourcebook, (Quezon City: The Philippines, 1976); Dean William Ferm, Third World Liberation Theologies. An Introductory Survey, (Maryknoll/New York, 1986); Tissa Balasuriya, Emerging Theologies of Asian Liberation, trong Leonardo Boff va Virgilio Elizondo (eds.), Theologies of the Third World, Convergences and Differences, (Edinburg, 1988)35-45; Daniel T. Adams, Cross Cultural Theology. Western Reflections in Asia, (Atlanta, 1987); Emerito Nacpil, Edito-rial: The Critical Asian Principle, trong South East Asia Journal of Theology, 1(1976)1-11.

[6] James A. Veitch phan biet gia than hoc tai Chau A, va than hoc Chau A. Than hoc tai Chau A la suy t than hoc do nhng nha t tng song tai Chau A hoac quan tam en Chau A, a ra cho nhng ai tai Chau A ma khong at van e xac nh dang thai va kieu mau cho sinh hoat than hoc cua ho; con than hoc Chau A th nham ti viec gay dng hay kien tao mot nen than hoc kha hu (co tiem nang hay c nang e hien hu) hnh thanh theo mot the dang nhat nh, i sat va co quan he noi lien vi mot boi canh lch s rieng bang nhng nhan to xa hoi lch s cung nh ton giao (ngha la gom ca triet ly na) ca biet; va nh the, the loai than hoc ang xuat hien ay, se khac vi cac the loai than hoc khac trong cach thc nhan manh en mot so khia canh hay van e nao o, va cung co the la ca trong cach thc cau truc, du la khong nhat thiet khac biet ve mat noi dung. Xin xem James A. Veitch, Is An Asian Theology Possible? trong tac pham Emmerito P. Nacpil va Douglas J. Elwood (eds.) The Human and the Holy. Asian Perspectives in Christian Theology, (Maryknoll/New York, 1980)216.

[7] Nhan nh nh the lam toi lien tng en ten tuoi hai nha than hoc xuat chung la: Raimundo Panikkar, ben An o, chuyen ve cong tac oi thoai lien ton, va William Johnston, ben Nhat Ban, chuyen ve tu c.

[8] Xin xem David Tracy, "Ethnic Pluralism and Systematic Theology: Reflections, trong Andrew M. Greeley va Gregory Baum (eds.) Ethnicity, (New York, 1977)91-99, va The Analogical Imagination , (New York, 1987)3-46.

[9] Choan-Seng Song, Theology from the Womb of Asia, (Maryknoll/New York, 1986)

[10] Ibid.

[11] Xin xem Tissa Balasuriya, "Towards the Liberation of Theology in Asia, trong tac pham Virginia Fabella (ed.), Asia's Struggle for Full Humanity: Towards a Relevant Theology, Maryknoll/New York, 1980)26, va Tissa Balasuriya, Planetary Theology, (Maryknoll/New York, 1984) 2-10.

[12] Sergio Torres va Virginia Fabella (eds.), The Emergent Gospel. Theology from the Developing World, 269.

[13] Carlos H. Abesamis, Doing Theology in a Philippine Context, trong Sergio Torres va Virginia Fabella, The Emergent Gospel, 118.

[14] Ibid., 121.

[15] Virginia Fabella va Sun Ai Lee Park, We dare to Dream. Doing Theology as Asian Women, (Hongkong, 1989)149.

[16] Ibid.

[17] ay la bai th cua Basho:Furuikeya, kawazu tobikomu, mizu no oto. (Xin da theo ban chuyen ng ra tieng Anh:
"Breaking the silence of an ancient pond, A frog jumped into water - A deep resonance".  Trong tac pham trng dan tiep sau ay, e dch la: Ech um ay nc: ao co... ong, Tan tanh tnh mac - Vong am vang!" ) Choan-Seng Song, Theology from the Womb of Asia.

[18] Ibid., 61.

[19] Xin xem Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, (Maryknoll/New York, 1988)80.

[20] Virginia Fabella, (ed.), Asia's Struggle for Full Humanity, 156.

[21] Xin xem Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, 57-58. e co them nhieu chi tiet hn ve phong trao Devasarana, xin xem Lakshman Wickremesinghe, Sri Lanka: The Devasarana Movement, 1970-1983, trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres, Doing Theology in a Divided World, 33-39.

[22] Xin xem The Coconut Live-In Report, trong Virginia Fabella (ed.), Asia's Struggle for Full Humanity, 42-49.

[23] Xin xem bai viet Reflections on a Live-In: Slum Dwellers, ibid., 50-56.

[24] The Live-In Plan, ibid., 41.

[25] Tissa Balasuriya, Emerging Theologies of Asian Liberation, trong Leonardo Boff va Vigilio Elizondo (eds.), Theologies of the Third World, 40.

[26] Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, 113.

[27] Virginia Fabella (ed.), Asia's Struggle for Full Humanity, 158.

[28] Xin xem Toward a Relevant Theology in Asia. Asian Group Report. trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.), Irruption of the Third World. Challenge to Theology, (Maryknoll/New York, 1983)65-69.

[29] Xin xem Kosake Koyama, Waterbuffalo Theology, (Maryknoll/New York, 1974)3-26; e co them tai lieu xuat ban gan ay hn, xin xem K. Matthew Kurian, Socio-Economic and Political Reality in Asia, trong Virginia Fabella (ed.), Asia's Struggle for Full Humanity, 59-74; Carlos H. Abesamis, Faith and Life Reflections from the Grassroots in the Philippines, ibid., 123-139; Peter K.H. Lee, Between the Old and the New, trong Sergio Torres va Virginia Fabella (eds.), The Emergent Gospel, 124-136; D.S. Amalorpavadass, The Indian Universe of a New Theology, ibid., 137-156; Samuel Rayan, Theological Priorities in India Today, trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.), Irruption of the Third World, 30-41; Id. (eds), Doing Theology in a Divided World, 182-187; Asian Report, trong K. C. Abraham (ed.), Third World Theologies. Commonalities and Divergences, (Maryknoll/New York, 1990)3-15.

[30] Xin xem Toward a Relevant Theology in Asia, trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.), Irruption of the Third World, 61.

[31] Virginia Fabella va Sun Ai Lee Park (eds.), We Dare to Dream, 148; xin cung xem Henriette (Marianne) Katoppo,Asian Theology: An Asian Woman's Perspective, trong Virginia Fabella (ed.), Asia's Strugglle for Full Humanity, 140-151.

[32] Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, 88.

[33] Ibid., 53.

[34] Xin xem Gerald H. Anderson (ed.), Asian Voices in Christian Theology, 5-6. Tr ra trng hp cua cac Hong Y Kim, tong giam muc Seoul, va Sin, tong giam muc Manila, la nhng v a dan than het mnh e phuc vu cho dan cho nc.

[35] Xin xem Samuel Rayan, Reconceiving Theology in the Asian Context, trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.), Doing Theology in a Divided World, 124-131; Toward a Relevant Theology in Asia, trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.), Irruption of the Third World, 65-69; va Tissa Balasuriya. Planetary Theology, 130-150.

[36] Tissa Balasuriya, Emerging Theologies of Asian Liberation, trong Leonardo Boff va Virgilio Elizondo (eds.), Theologies of the Third World, 44; Sebastian Kappen, Orientations for an Asian Theology, trong Virginia Fabella (ed.), Asia's Struggle for Full Humanity, 117. ac biet, Kappen a mieu ta ve chc nang phe bnh cua than hoc nh la mot no lc minh nhien t bo tien cua, the lc va nhng g tac gia goi la Phan Thien Chua, tc la viec phung t, giao ieu va luat le. Tac gia con noi rang: The nen, e khai trien cho c mot nen than hoc thc s trung thanh vi Thien Chua hang song, th cac nha than hoc Chau A cung ch con co mot ng loi la quyet nh khong tham gia vao to chc cua giao hoi the che, hay la bang moi gia, ng ra ngoai le loi hanh ong cua giao hoi. (ibid., 115-116). Theo cho toi c biet, th quan iem cc oan cua Kappen khong c may ai tan ong.

[37] Xin xem Carlos Abesamis, Doing Theological Reflection in a Philippine Context, trong Sergio Torres va Virginia Fabella (eds.), The Emergent Gospel, 121.

[38] Xin xem Samuel Rayan, Commonalities, Divergences, and Crossfertilization among Third World Theologies, trong K.C. Abraham (ed.), Third World Theologies: Commonalities and Divergences, 198: "Chung toi co cung mot nhu cau chung, o la can phai gi vng nen tang giao hoi cua chung toi, bat chap nhng khac biet gia cac giao hoi, ca nh giao hoi oc lap lan nh cach bieu at quan niem cua mnh trong moi vung oi vi nhng thc tai mnh ang song, e noi len no lc mnh a ra nham tham gia vao cong tac xay dng than hoc va ay manh tien trnh giai phong, cung nh e noi len phng cach ng ap trc nhng trang huong ma tat ca chung toi eu ong y la co that. Trong mot so trng hp, o la ieu quy gia; nhng trong mot so hoan canh khac, th o lai la mot thach o kho khan. Du sao, chung toi cung a eu ong y rang giao hoi cua c Kito la cong cu Thien Chua dung e giai phong tinh than con ngi va e gii thieu cho thay nhng hoa trai au mua cua Nc Thien Chua."

[39] Xin xem Carlos Abesamis, Doing Theological Reflection in a Philippine Context, trong Sergio Torres va Virginia Fabella (eds.), The Emergent Gospel, 120-121.

[40] Xin xem C.S. Song, Let Us Do Theology with Asian Resources! East Asia Journal of Theology, 3/2(1985) 202-208; Samuel Rayan, Reconceiving Theology in the Asian Context, trong Doing Theology in a Divided World, 209-216.

[41] Tissa Balasuriya, Divergences: An Asian Perspective, trong K.C. Abraham, Third World Theologies, 115.

[42] Xin xem bo kinh th  Ve a trong cuon Raimundo Panikar, The Vedic Experience, (London, 1977) chang han.

[43] Xin xem Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, 51-58.

[44] oan trng dan trong Robert McAfee Brown, What Can North American Learn from Minjung Theology? cua tac pham Jung Young Lee (ed.), An Emerging Theology in World Perspective. Commentary on Korean Minjung Theology, (Mystic/Connecticut, 1988)38. Xin xem them phan dan nhap cua tac gia Leee viet ve cach thc Than hoc Tien dan s dung thuat ke chuyen, ibid., 16-18.

[45] Xin xem Hyung-Kung Chung, Opium or the Seed for Revolution?: Shamanism: Women Centred Popular Religiosity in Korea, trong Leonardo Boff va Virgilio Elizondo (eds.), Theologies of the Third World, 96-104.

[46] Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, 70.

[47] Xin xem Samuel Rayan, "Reconceiving Theology in the Asian Context," trong Virginia Fabella va Sergio Torres (eds.) Doing Theology in a Divided World, 134-139.

[48] Xin xem Aruna Gnanadason, Women's Oppression: A Sinful Situation, trong Virginia Fabella va Mercy Amba Oduyoye, With Passion and Compassion. Third World Women Doing Theology, (Maryknoll/New York, 1988) 69-76; Virginia Fabella, A Common Methodology for Diverse Christologies? ibid., 108-117, va ca Virginia Fabella va Sun Ai Lee Park (eds.), We Dare to Dream, (Hong Kong, 1989); Hyun-Kyung, Struggle to Be the Sun Again, (Maryknoll/New York, 1990).

[49] Aloysius Pieris, An Asian Theology of Liberation, 86. Trong chieu hng ay, cac than hoc Chau A a co xoa bo quan niem chia cach gia hai phng thc ban x hoa, tc la phng thc hoi nhap van hoa ton giao va phng thc giai phong chnh tr xa hoi. o la lap trng c goi la thai o chiem niem dan than ("contemplative commitment"). Xet ve mat phng phap, ho s dung ca hai loai phan tch: phan tch kieu Mac xt, cung nh phan tch van hoa ton giao. Than hoc ban x Chau Phi cung phai oi dien vi cung mot van e nh the, tc la phai dung hoa gia phng cach giai phong va phng cach van hoa ton giao (nh phong trao da en/negritude tai Chau Phi tieng Phap chang han). Xin xem Engelbert Mveng, African Liberation Theology, trong Leonardo Boff va Virgilio Elizondo (eds.), Theologies of the Third World, 17-34.

[50] Tissa Balasuriya a tng theo hoc va lay bang ve kinh te nong nghiep tai ai hoc Oxford, va bang than hoc tai ai hoc Gregoriana, Roma, cung nh tai ai hoc Paris; a tng lam vien trng ai hoc Aquino ben Sri Lanka, va hien ang lam viec tai Trung tam nghien cu ve Xa hoi va Ton giao tai thu o Colombo. Ong la tac gia cua nhieu bai viet va tac pham sau ay: Jesus Christ and Human Liberation (1976); The Eucharist and Human Liberation, (Maryknoll/New York, 1979); Planetary Theology, (Maryknoll/New York, 1984.

[51] Tissa Balasuriya, Planetary Theology, 14.

[52] Cuon Planetary Theology day 274 trang; th a co 150 trang danh e noi ve cuoc phan tch xa hoi, ton giao va van hoa; phan con laai danh e trnh bay mot hnh thc mi trong cach bieu at cac iem c ban cua giao ly kito, nh: Thien Chua, c Giesu Kito, giao hoi, khoa day giao ly, viec phung t va i song thieng lieng.

[53] Ibid., 167.

[54] Ibid., 179.

[55] Ibid., 189-190.

[56] Ibid., 194.

[57] Xin xem ibid., 243-251, cung nh thien trnh bay nhng ham y chnh tr va xa hoi tiem an ni b tch Thanh The, trong cuon Eucharist and Human Liberation.

[58] Xin xem Planetary Theology, 254-274.

[59] Choan-Seng Song hien lam giao s day than hoc va mon nghien cu ve cac nen van hoa Chau A, tai Pacific School of Religion Berkeley, bang California, Hoa Ky, va tai Trng Than Hoc ong Nam Chau A. Theo hoc triet hoc tai ai hoc Quoc gia ai Loan (au bang B.A.) va than hoc tai New College cua ai hoc Edingburg (au bang B.D.), Song a lay bang tien s (than hoc Ph.D.) tai Union Theological Seminary New York. Ong a tng lam giam oc Trng Than hoc ai Nam, ai Loan; lam giao s thnh giang tai Trng Than hoc Princeton va lam phu ta giam oc Van phong th ky cua Uy ban ve c tin va The che thuoc Hoi ong ai Ket Cac Giao Hoi Kito (World Council of Churches) tai Gi-ne-v, Thuy S. Sau ay la cac tac pham chnh cua ong: Christian Mission in Reconstruction. An Asian Analysis (Madras, 1975 / Maryknoll/New York, 1977); The Third-Eye Theology. Theology in Formation in Asian Settings (Maryknoll/New York, 1982, 1990); The Tears of Lady Meng. A Parable of People's Political Theology (World Council of Churches/Geneva 1981 / Matyknoll/New York 1982); The Compassionate God (Maryknoll/New York, 1982); Tell Us Our Names. Story Theology from an Asian Perspective (Maryknoll/New York, 1984); Theology from the Womb of Asia (Maryknoll/New York, 1982), va tac pham ba cuon ve Kito hoc ang hnh thanh: cuon au a ra mat cong chung vi ta e Jesus, The Crucified People (New York, 1990); ta e hai cuon tiep theo la: Jesus and the Reign of God va Jesus in the Power of the Spirit.

[60] Christian Mission in Reconstruction, 1.

[61] Ibid., 76

[62] Ibid., 111.

[63] Ibid., 158-159.

[64] Ibid., 197.

[65] Xin xem ibid., 229-236.

[66] Third-Eye Theology, xi.

[67] Ibid., 95.

[68] Xin xem chang han The Compassionate God, 145-260 (trong phan nay, tac gia a lam mot cuoc phan tch lch s ve Trung Hoa va ai Loan), va Theology from the Womb of Asia, 19-42.

[69] Xin xem mot so th du trong cuon The Theology from the Womb of Asia.

[70] The Tears of Lady Meng, 65. Con co ca mot loat mau truyen rat hay khac trong cuon Tell Us Our Names.

[71] Xin xem Jesus, The Crucified People, ac biet la chng cuoi.

[72] Xin xem Theology from the Womb of Asia, 70-71 va 159-161, trong o, tac gia ban ve khai niem han va viec dung en cac vu ieu gia trang trong Than hoc Tien dan. Xin cung xem bai viet cua cung mot tac gia Building a Theological Culture of People, trong Jung Young Lee (ed.), An Emerging Theology in World Perspective. Commentary on Korean Minjung Theology, 119-134.

[73] Xin xem Wonmo Dong (ed.), Korean-American Relations at Crossroads (Princeton/New York, 1982),17. Ve th muc cac tac pham chnh viet ve Than hoc Tien dan, xin xem Jung Young Lee (ed.), An Emerging Theology in World Perspective, 211. Tac pham quan trong nhat viet ve than hoc tien dan, la cuon Minjung Theology: People as the Subjects of History, Uy Ban ac trach ve cac Van e Than hoc cua Hiep Hoi Kito Chau A (Maryknoll/New York, 1983).

[74] Moon Hee-suk, A Korean Minjung Theology: An Old Testament Perspective (Maryknoll/New York, 1985),1-2. Va s mang cua than hoc tien dan la tm cho ra phng cach e lam cho nguoi cn gian - han - ay i, va nh the, se giai phong c dan chung - minjung .

[75] Xin xem phan trnh bay cua Jung Young Lee trong: Id., An Emerging Theology in World Perspective, 10-11. Ngoai Kim Chi-ha ra, con co hai bo mat noi bat khac cua trao lu than hoc tien dan, o la cac giao s Suh Nam-dong va Ahn Byung-mu.

[76] Cac than hoc gia n quyen ai han cung a neu cao vai tro phu n lam chu le trong cac nghi thc Shaman (mudang), coi o la mot phng cach e giai phong n gii khoi canh no le a dien ma ho ang chu. Xin xem Hyung-Kung Chung, Opium or Seed for Revolution? Shamanism: Women Centred Popular Religiosity in Korea, trong Theology of the Third World, 96-104.

[77] Xin xem Suh Nam-dong, Historical References for a Theology of Minjung, trong: Minjung Theology: People as The Subjects of History, 164-177.

[78] Ve cac nhan nh anh gia - tan thng cung nh chong oi, - Than hoc Tien dan, xin xem Jung Young Lee (ed.), An Emerging Theology in World Perspective.